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Table 3 Characteristics at farm sites

From: A faecal exposure assessment of farm workers in Accra, Ghana: a cross sectional study

Exposure N (%)
Poultry manure use*
 Dry season (n = 80) 48 (60)
 Rainy season (n = 83) 82 (99)
Last irrigated (N = 80)
 ≤1 day 32 (40)
 1 to 2 days 13 (16)
 2 to 3 days 21 (26)
 >3 days 14 (18)
Defecation practices of farmers
 Public toilet 20 (25)
 Neighbour’s toilet 2 (2.4)
 Open Defecation 58 (73)
Source of farmers drinking water
 Sachet water 58 (73)
 Piped water 22 (27)
What used to wash hands before eating (N = 76)
 Irrigation water only 2 (2.6)
 Piped water only 22 (29)
 Sachet water only 8 (11)
 Water and soap 44 (58)
Observed hand washing practices before eating (N = 21)
 Washed hands before eating 17 (81)
 Washed hands with water and soap 1 (5.9)
 Washed hands with only water 16 (94)
Whether drain water increases farmers income compared to piped water
 Yes 48 (60)
 No 3 (4)
 Cannot tell 29 (36)
Farming as main source of income
 Yes 63 (79)
 No 17 (21)
Where farmers eat often when at work (N = 77)
 On the farm 59 (77)
 At vending sites 8 (10)
 At home 10 (13)
Reported working times in the field
 Average daily working hours (min – max) 7.1 (4, 13)
 Average days worked per week (min – max) 6.7 (5, 7)
 Average days worked per month (min – max) 28.2 (20, 30)
 Average months worked per year (min – max) 11.8 (9, 12)
 Average days worked per year (min – max) 336.7 (240, 360)
  1. * p-value, < 0.001