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Table 2 E. coli contamination of irrigation water and farm soil

From: A faecal exposure assessment of farm workers in Accra, Ghana: a cross sectional study

Water quality N Median IQR*** P1
 E. coli (Log10/100 ml)
  Dry season 80 5.37 3.61, 6.27 0.35
  Rainy season 80 5.73 3.48, 6.61
 Water sources
  Drain water 36 6.61 5.93, 6.81 <0.001
  Dug-out 41 3.78 3.00, 5.69
  Piped water 3 2.65 2.65, 3.30
 Proximity to garbage
  ≤3 m 59 5.90 3.70, 6.72 0.02
  >3 m 21 4.57 3.00, 5.79
Farm soil parameter N Mean (SD*) 95 % CI** P2
 E. coli(Log10/g)
  Dry season 83 2.25 (0.93) 2.05, 2.46 0.93
  Rainy season 80 2.24 (0.92) 2.04, 2.45
 With manure (both seasons)
  Yes 128 2.34 (0.89) 2.19, 2.50 0.01
  No 33 1.90 (0.94) 1.57, 2.23
 Irrigated with:
  Drain water 36 2.84 (0.61) 2.63, 3.04 <0.001
  Dug-out 41 1.79 (0.86) 1.52, 2.06
  Piped water 3 1.27 (0.53) −0.06, 2.59
 When irrigated
  ≤1 day 32 2.58 (0.90) 2.26, 2.91 0.01
  Between 1 day – 2 days 13 2.11 (0.83) 1.61, 2.61
  >2 days 35 1.98 (0.90) 1.67, 2.29
Multivariable analysis
Exposure N Change in mean 95 % CI** P3
 Irrigation water 160 0.41 0.30, 0.52 <0.001
 Manure 163 0.23 −0.11, 0.57 0.03
 Seasonality 160 0.97 0.11, 1.85 0.05
 Season #irrigation water 160 −0.20 −0.36, -0.04 <0.001
  1. SD* standard deviation
  2. 95 % CI** 95 % confidence interval
  3. IQR*** = Interquartile range
  4. P1, p-value calculated using Mann–Whitney test or Kruskal-Wallis test for irrigation water quality. P2, p-value calculated using t-test and Anova for farm soil quality
  5. P3, p-value calculated using likelihood ratio test