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Table 3 Variables included in the regression models

From: Using a positive deviance framework to identify Local Health Departments in Communities with exceptional maternal and child health outcomes: a cross sectional study

Variables Notes
External factors LHDs cannot control (Context)
Total LHD expenditure Raw number or per capita
Population Total population of the county/area the LHD serves (number)
Number of Medicaid births in the county Controls for need of services
Core Based Statistical Area (CSBA) [28] 3 levels: metropolitan, micropolitan, rural
% of children under 18 living in poverty  
Social Disadvantage Index [29] Index of median HH income; % of households receiving public assistance; % unemployed
% of persons 25+ with HS or more education in county  
% of county population that is African American  
% of county population that is Hispanic  
Per Capita number of nurses  
Per Capita number of midwives  
Per Capita number of doctors  
Inputs (LHD can control)
Alternative Provider Categorical variables for each MCH service area (linked to expenditure included); captures whether other entity is providing the service in the county area
Executive Clinician 0-1; captures whether the executive at the LHD has a clinical degree or not
LHD Service Approach Classification Categorical variable (4 levels) obtained through latent class analysis of self-reported LHD service provisions to the NACCHO profile survey [34]
MCH Outcomes
Teen pregnancy rate Number of births to girls age 15–19 over total number of girls age 15–19 (× 1000), smoothed (3 year average)
Infant Mortality rate Number of infant deaths over total number of births, smoothed (3 year average)
Late or no prenatal care rate Number of infants born that received no or late prenatal care over total births, smoothed (3 year average)
Low birth weight rate Number of infants born at low birth weight over total births, smoothed (3 year average)