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Table 1 Urine and blood biomarkers of exposure

From: Reductions in biomarkers of exposure, impacts on smoking urge and assessment of product use and tolerability in adult smokers following partial or complete substitution of cigarettes with electronic cigarettes

  Chemical constituent Clinical endpoint Analysis method LLOQb
Urine biomarkers of exposure     
 NNAL (4-(methylnitrosamino)-1–(3-pyridyl)-1-butanol) 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1–(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNK) Cancer LC-MS-MS 5.00 pg/mL
 3-HPMA 3-hydroxypropylmercapturic acid Acrolein Cancer LC-MS-MS 20 ng/mL
 HMPMA (3-hydroxy-1-ethylpropylmercapturic acid) Crotonaldehyde Cancer LC-MS-MS 20 ng/mL
 CEMA (2-cyanoethylmercapturic acid) Acrylonitrile Cancer LC-MS-MS 0.275 ng/mL
 1-OHP (1-hydroxypyrene) Pyrene Cancer LC-MS-MS 10.0 pg/mL
 NNN (N-Nitrosonornicotine) NNN Cancer LC-MS-MS 0.200 pg/mL
 MHBMA (Monohydroxy-3-butenyl mercapturic acid) 1,3-Butadiene Cancer LC-MS-MS 0.100 ng/mL
 S-PMA (S-phenylmercapturic acid) Benzene Cancer LC-MS-MS 0.0250 ng/mL
 Nicotine equivalentsa
 Nicotine
 Nicotine-gluc
 Cotinine
 Cotinine-gluc
 Trans-3′-hydroxycotinine
 Trans-3′-hydroxycotinine-gluc
Nicotine Nicotine exposure LC-MS-MS 50.0 ng/mL
50.0 ng/mL
50.0 ng/mL
200 ng/mL
50.0 ng/mL
200 ng/mL
Blood Biomarkers of Exposure     
 Blood COHb CO CO Exposure Spectrophotometric 0.50 %
 Plasma Nicotine Nicotine Nicotine Exposure LC-MS-MS 0.200 ng/mL
 Plasma Cotinine Nicotine Nicotine Exposure LC-MS-MS 1.00 ng/mL
 Plasma Trans-3′hydroxycotinine Nicotine Nicotine Exposure LC-MS-MS 1.00 ng/mL
  1. aNicotine equivalents: calculated as the molar sum of nicotine and 5 major nicotine metabolites excreted in urine over 24 h and reported as nicotine equivalents (mg/24 h)
  2. b LLOQ Lower Limit of Quantification