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Table 3 Overview of intervention-group outcomes compared to control-group outcomes

From: A systematic review of randomized controlled trials of mHealth interventions against non-communicable diseases in developing countries

Study Balsa and Gandelman [25] Shetty et al. [26] Shahid et al. [27] Ostojic et al. [29] Liu et al. [28] Piette et al. [23] Liew et al. [30] Tian et al. [24]
Intervention Health promotion & awareness Remote monitoring & care support Decision support system
Personalization No Yes
Interactivity No Yes No
Disease Diabetes Asthma Hyper-tension Various NCDs CVDs
Clinical outcomes
SBPa (mm Hg), Mean +/−   ++    + / ++b   ++
Fasting blood glucose level +/−        
BMIc, kg/m2   +/−d +/−e      
PPGf < 180 mg   ++       
HbA1cg   ++h ++i      
TCj < 150 mg/dl   ++       
HDL-Ck > 40 mg/dl   +/−       
LDL-Cl < 100 mg   ++ ++      
FEV1%m, predicted     + ++    
PEFRn, L/min     + ++    
PEFRvariability     ++     
Coughing     ++     
Night symptoms     ++     
Wheezing     +/−     
Limitation of activities     +/−     
Compliance outcomes
Attendance   +      ++  
ICSo dosage     +/− +    
Systemic steroids     +/− +    
Antileukotrienes     +/− +/−    
Long-acting beta2-agonist         
Anti-hypertensive medication use         ++
Aspirin         ++
Adherence to diet prescription   +/− ++      
Adherence to physical activity   + ++      
Quality of life related outcomes
Physical component      ++    
Mental component      ++    
Cost
Monetary     -     
Timely     -     
Other outcomes
Knowledge +/−        
Perception of health quality +/−        
Health-related behaviors +/−        
Physician-Patient relationship +/−        
Number of visits to emergency department      ++    
Depression scores       ++   
Perceived overall health       ++   
Overall satisfaction with care       ++   
Medication problems       ++   
Current smoker, %         +/−
Awareness of harms of high salt diet, %         +/−
Receiving monthly follow-up, %         ++
Hospitalization during the past year, %         +
  1. (+/−): no difference; (+): superior to control group without significance; (++): superior to control group with significance (p < 0.05); (−): inferior to control group. A more detailed summary of reported outcomes, specifying values for intervention and control groups is available in Stephani et al. [44]
  2. aSystolic Blood Pressure
  3. bSubgroup of low-literacy people/people with higher education needs
  4. cBody Mass Index
  5. dBMI < 26
  6. eBMI < 25
  7. fPostprandial Plasma Glucose Test
  8. gGlycated hemoglobin
  9. hHbA1c < 8 %
  10. imean HbA1c level
  11. jTotal Cholestorol
  12. kHigh-Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol
  13. lLow Density Lipoprotein
  14. mPeak Expiratory Flow Rate
  15. nForced Expiratory Volume in 1 second
  16. oInhaled Corticosteroid