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Table 3 Multivariate analysis for natural log-transformed urinary cotinine concentrations of non-smoking residents of smoke-free homesa

From: Characterization of urinary cotinine in non-smoking residents in smoke-free homes in the Korean National Environmental Health Survey (KoNEHS)

  β Standard error p-value
Type of housing    
 Apartment Reference   
 Attached housing 0.39 0.17 0.011
 Detached housing 0.44 0.17 0.024
Sex    
 Men Reference   
 Women −0.28 0.16 0.074
Household income (USD/month)    
  ≤ 1000 Reference   
 1001–2000 −0.06 0.16 0.706
 2001–3000 −0.17 0.20 0.384
  > 3000 −0.06 0.20 0.769
Former smoker    
 Never smoked Reference   
  > 1 year not smoking 0.47 0.17 0.007
  ≤ 1 year not smoking 1.24 0.28 <0.001
Frequency of SHS odor (times/week)    
 None Reference   
 1–2 −0.07 0.17 0.655
 3–6 0.13 0.20 0.520
 Every day 0.60 0.31 0.053
  1. R-squared values from the multivariate regression model were 0.14 after adjusting for all associated factors listed in the table
  2. aAll estimated data are based on weighted analyses