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Table 2 Urinary cotinine concentrations (ng/mg creatinine) and univariate analysis for natural log-transformed cotinine concentrations of non-smoking residents of smoke-free homesa

From: Characterization of urinary cotinine in non-smoking residents in smoke-free homes in the Korean National Environmental Health Survey (KoNEHS)

  GM (95 % CI) β Standard error p-value
Type of housing     
 Apartment 0.69 (0.55–0.86) Reference   
 Attached housing 1.18 (0.91–1.52) 0.54 0.17 0.002
 Detached housing 1.23 (0.96–1.58) 0.58 0.17 <0.001
Sex     
 Men 1.56 (1.24–1.96) Reference   
 Women 0.76 (0.64–0.90) −0.72 0.13 <0.0001
Age (year)     
 19–39 0.80 (0.60–1.06) Reference   
 40–59 1.09 (0.90–1.32) 0.32 0.17 0.070
  ≥ 60 1.01 (0.80–1.27) 0.24 0.19 0.219
Education     
 Middle school or less 1.09 (0.87–1.37) Reference   
 High school 0.89 (0.70–1.14) −0.20 0.17 0.220
 College or higher 0.95 (0.70–1.28) −0.14 0.19 0.436
Household income (USD/month)     
  ≤ 1000 1.21 (0.92–1.59) Reference   
 1001–2000 1.02 (0.80–1.31) −0.16 0.16 0.297
 2001–3000 0.81 (0.62–1.07) −0.39 0.20 0.045
  > 3000 0.91 (0.69–1.21) −0.28 0.21 0.175
Former smoker     
 Never smoked 0.79 (0.68–0.93) Reference   
  > 1 year not smoking 1.70 (1.27–2.27) 0.76 0.15 <0.0001
  ≤ 1 year not smoking 3.91 (2.32–6.60) 1.60 0.27 <0.0001
Frequency of SHS odor (times/week)     
 None 0.93 (0.79–1.10) Reference   
 1–2 0.99 (0.71–1.37) 0.05 0.17 0.762
 3–6 1.33 (0.83–2.13) 0.35 0.24 0.140
 Every day 2.07 (1.11–3.88) 0.80 0.33 0.017
Duration of SHS odor (min/day)     
 None 0.93 (0.79–1.10) Reference   
 1–5 1.17 (0.72–1.91) 0.23 0.27 0.395
 6–30 1.32 (0.90–1.94) 0.35 0.21 0.095
  ≥ 31 1.30 (0.78–2.20) 0.33 0.25 0.185
  1. aAll estimated data are based on weighted analyses