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Table 3 Factors associated with hepatitis B and C knowledge, attitude and practice (N = 662)

From: Factors associated with knowledge, attitude and practice related to hepatitis B and C among international students of Universiti Putra Malaysia

Variable   Knowledge HB Knowledge HC Attitude Practice
Better f (%) Poor f (%) Better f (%) Poor f (%) Positive f (%) Negative f (%) Safe f (%) Unsafe f (%)
Gender Male 191 (49.2) 197 (50.8) 192 (49.5) 196 (50.5) 211 (54.4) 177 (45.6) 288 (74.2) 100 (25.8)
Female 142 (51.8) 132 (48.2) 157 (57.3) 117 (42.7) 152 (55.5) 122 (44.5) 226 (82.5) 48 (17.5)
χ 2 = 0.43 p = 0.510 χ 2 = 3.94 p = 0.047 χ 2 = 0.08 p = 0.781 χ 2 = 6.30 p = 0.012
Faculty Sciences 156 (55.3) 126 (44.7) 160 (56.7) 122 (43.3) 178 (63.1) 104 (36.9) 219 (77.7) 63 (22.3)
Arts & Humanities 177 (46.6) 203 (53.4) 189 (49.7) 191 (50.3) 185 (48.7) 195 (51.3) 295 (77.6) 85 (22.4)
χ 2 = 4.95 p = 0.026 χ 2 = 3.18 p = 0.074 χ 2 = 13.62 p < 0.001 χ 2 = 0.00 p = 0.993
Nationality Africans 117 (50.6) 114 (49.4) 123 (53.3) 108 (46.8) 156 (67.5) 75 (32.5) 185 (80.1) 46 (19.9)
Asians 213 (49.9) 214 (50.1) 224 (52.5) 203 (47.5) 203 (47.5) 224 (52.5) 326 (76.3) 101 (23.7)
Europeans 3 (75.0) 1 (25.0) 2 (50.0) 2 (50.0) 4 (100.0) 0 (0.0) 3 (75.0) 1 (25.0)
χ 2 = 1.06 p = 0.588a χ 2 = 0.05 p = 0.976a χ 2 = 29.40 p < 0.001a χ 2 = 1.24 p = 0.538a
Study level Undergraduates 57 (47.5) 63 (52.5) 61 (50.8) 59 (49.2) 41 (34.2) 79 (65.8) 80 (66.7) 40 (33.3)
Masters 89 (43.2) 117 (56.8) 98 (47.6) 108 (52.4) 112 (54.4) 94 (45.6) 155 (75.2) 51 (24.8)
PhD 187 (55.7) 149 (44.3) 190 (56.5) 146 (43.5) 210 (62.5) 126 (37.5) 279 (83.0) 57 (17.0)
χ 2 = 8.38 p = 0.015 χ 2 = 4.34 p = 0.114 χ 2 = 28.69 p < 0.001 χ 2 = 14.64 p = 0.001
Age group ≤20 19 (52.8) 17 (47.2) 21 (58.3) 15 (41.7) 10 (27.8) 26 (72.2) 22 (61.1) 14 (38.9)
21–29 109 (49.5) 111 (50.5) 113 (51.4) 107 (48.6) 102 (46.4) 118 (53.6) 168 (76.4) 52 (23.6)
≥30 205 (50.5) 201 (49.5) 215 (53.0) 191 (47.0) 251 (61.8) 155 (38.2) 324 (79.8) 82 (20.2)
χ 2 = 0.15 p = 0.930 χ 2 = 0.63 p = 0.731 χ 2 = 25.02 p < 0.001 χ 2 = 6..96 p = 0.031
Marital status Single 152 (47.8) 166 (52.2) 166 (52.2) 152 (47.8) 158 (49.7) 160 (50.3) 231 (72.6) 87 (27.4)
Ever married 181 (52.6) 168 (47.4) 183 (53.2) 161 (46.8) 205 (59.6) 139 (40.4) 283 (82.3) 61 (17.7)
χ 2 = 1.53 p = 0.215 χ 2 = 0.07 p = 0.798 χ 2 = 6.55 p = 0.010 χ 2 = 8.82 p = 0.003
Family history of hepatitis Yes 31 (68.9) 14 (31.1) 33 (73.3) 12 (26.7) 31 (68.9) 14 (31.1) 37 (82.2) 8 (17.8)
No 302 (48.9) 315 (51.1) 316 (51.2) 301 (48.8) 332 (53.8) 285 (46.2) 477 (77.3) 140 (22.7)
χ 2 = 6.67 p = 0.010 χ 2 = 8.23 p = 0.004 χ 2 = 3.85 p = 0.050 χ 2 = 0.58 p = 0.445
Friend with hepatitis Yes 117 (59.4) 80 (40.6) 121 (61.4) 76 (38.6) 133 (67.5) 64 (32.5) 155 (78.7) 42 (21.3)
No 216 (46.6) 248 (53.4) 228 (49.1) 236 (50.9) 230 (49.6) 234 (50.4) 359 (77.4) 105 (22.6)
χ 2 = 9.12 p = 0.003 χ 2 = 8.37 p = 0.004 χ 2 = 17.98 p < 0.001 χ 2 = 0.14 p = 0.711
Yellowness of the eyes Yes 20 (48.8) 21 (51.2) 23 (56.1) 18 (43.9) 20 (48.8) 21 (51.2) 32 (78.0) 9 (22.0)
No 313 (50.4) 308 (49.6) 326 (52.5) 295 (47.5) 343 (55.2) 278 (44.8) 482 (77.6) 139 (22.4)
χ 2 = 0.04 p = 0.841 χ 2 = 0.20 p = 0.655 χ 2 = 0.65 p = 0.421 χ 2 = 0.01 p = 0.949
Diagnosed with hepatitis Yes 15 (55.6) 12 (44.4) 19 (70.4) 8 (29.6) 21 (77.8) 6 (22.2) 23 (85.2) 4 (14.8)
No 318 (50.1) 317 (49.9) 330 (52.0) 305 (48.0) 342 (53.9) 293 (46.1) 491 (77.3) 144 (22.7)
χ 2 = 0.31 p = 0.58 χ 2 = 3.518 p = 0.061 χ 2 = 5.98 p = 0.014 χ 2 = 0.92 p = 0.337
Vaccination status Yes 166 (65.9) 86 (34.1) 157 (62.3) 95 (37.7) 161 (63.9) 19 (36.1) 226 (89.7) 26 (10.3)
No 167 (40.7) 243 (59.3) 192 (46.2) 218 (53.2) 202 (49.3) 208 (50.7) 288 (70.2) 122 (29.8)
χ 2 = 39.46 p = < 0.001 χ 2 = 14.99 p = < 0.001 χ 2 = 13.47 p < 0.001 χ 2 = 33.97 p < 0.001
Doses received 0 125 (40.2) 186 (59.8) 148 (47.6) 163 (52.4) 20 (64.5) 11 (35.5) 26 (83.9) 5 (16.1)
1 19 (61.3) 12 (38.7) 18 (58.1) 13 (41.9) 32 (76.2) 10 (23.8) 39 (92.9) 3 (7.1)
2 29 (69.0) 13 (31.0) 26 (61.9) 16 (38.1) 68 (71.6) 27 (28.4) 87 (91.6) 8 (8.4)
3 72 (75.8) 23 (24.2) 65 (68.4) 30 (31.6) 157 (50.5) 154 (49.5) 220 (70.7) 91 (29.3)
Do not know 88 (48.1) 95 (51.9) 92 (50.3) 91 (49.7) 86 (47.0) 97 (53.0) 142 (77.6) 41 (22.4)
χ 2 = 45.16 p = < 0.001 χ 2 = 14.90 p = 0.005 χ 2 = 26.58 p < 0.001 χ 2 = 25.46 p < 0.001
  1. aLikelihood ratio was used where χ 2 and Fisher's exact test were not applicable, f frequency, % percentage, N total number of respondents, n number of respondents in the sub-group, HB hepatitis B, HC hepatitis C