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Table 4 Descriptive statistics of participant characteristics

From: Behaviour change intervention for smokeless tobacco cessation: its development, feasibility and fidelity testing in Pakistan and in the UK

Characteristics Total UK Pakistan
Total, N 32 16 16
Sex, n (%)
Male 16 (50) 8 (50) 8 (50)
Female 16 (50) 8 (50) 8 (50)
Current SLT use daily vs. non-daily, n (%)
Daily 30 (93.8) 15 (93.8) 15 (93.8)
Non- daily 2 (6.3) 1 (6.3) 1 (6.3)
Current SLT use times per day, mean (SD) 13.6 (11.7) 9.56 (9.7) 17.7 (12.3)
Type of SLT used, n (%)
Tobacco leaf or tobacco leaf mixture 11 (34.4) 8 (50) 3 (18.8)
Gutkha or tobacco, betel-nut & catechu mixture 23 (71.9) 7 (43.8) 16 (100)
Urge to use SLT, n (%)
Not at all 4 (12.5) 0 (0) 4 (25)
A little of the time 5 (15.6) 1 (6.3) 4 (25)
Some of the time 14 (43.8) 7 (43.8) 7 (43.8)
A lot of the time 6 (18.8) 5 (31.3) 1 (6.3)
Almost all the time 2 (6.3) 2 (12.5) 0 (0)
All the time 1 (3.1) 1 (6.3) 0 (0)
Strength of urges for SLT, n (%)
No urges 4 (12.5) 0 (0) 4 (25)
Slight 1 (3.1) 1 (6.3) 0 (0)
Moderate 10 (31.3) 6 (37.5) 4 (25)
Strong 12 (37.5) 6 (37.5) 6 (37.5)
Very strong 5 (15.6) 3 (18.8) 2 (12.5)
Extremely Strong 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0)
Fagerström Scale - SLT, n (%)
Very Low (0–2) 2 (6.3) 2 (12.5) 0 (0)
Low (3–4) 5 (15.6) 5 (31.3) 0 (0)
Moderate (5) 3 (9.4) 2 (12.5) 1 (6.3)
High (6–7) 8 (25) 2 (12.5) 6 (37.5)
Very high (8–10) 10 (31.3) 1 (6.3) 9 (56.3)
Quit intentions, n (%)
May quit in future, but not in 6 months 9 (28.1) 0 (0) 9 (56.3)
Will quit in the next 6 months 10 (31.3) 4 (25) 6 (37.5)
Will quit in the next 30 days 12 (37.5) 11 (68.8) 1 (6.3)
Quit attempt in last 12 months, n (%) 11 (34.4) 8 (50) 3 (18.8)
Use of any tobacco cessation aids, n (%) 2 (6.3) 2 (12.5) 0 (0)
Doctors asked about SLT use, n (%) 13 (40.6) 3 (18.8) 10 (62.5)
Doctors advised to stop SLT use, n (%) 10 (31.3) 3 (18.8) 7 (43.8)
Doctors offered aids to quit, n (%) 1 (3.1) 1 (6.3) 0 (0)
Smoked 100 cigarettes in lifetime, n (%) 1 (3.1) 1 (6.3) 0 (0)
UK population – saliva cotinine concentration ng/ml Baseline Follow-up
N 16 10
Min 1.0 0.1
Max 577.1 609.0
Mean (SD) 237.1 (194.62) 174.3 (220.7)
Pakistan – urine cotinine level (cotinine equivalent ng/mL) Baseline Follow-up
0 (1–10) 0 0
1 (10–30) 0 0
2 (30–100) 1 0
3 (100–200) 0 0
4 (200–500) 0 6
5 (500–2000) 0 1
6 > 2000 15 6
Missing 0 3