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Table 1 Characteristics of the KiGGS study population with regard to children aged 0 to 6 years

From: Social disparities in parental smoking and young children’s exposure to secondhand smoke at home: a time-trend analysis of repeated cross-sectional data from the German KiGGS study between 2003-2006 and 2009-2012

   KiGGS baseline study (2003-06) KiGGS Wave 1 (2009-12)
(n = 6680) (n = 4455)
   na %b na %b
Age (years) 0 935 11.6 634 11.6
1 925 14.4 641 14.3
2 945 14.8 667 14.8
3 934 14.8 601 14.8
4 982 14.5 663 14.5
5 953 14.8 633 14.8
6 1006 15.1 616 15.2
Sex Boys 3367 51.3 2290 51.3
Girls 3313 48.7 2165 48.7
Socioeconomic status (SES) Low 1023 19.6 359 17.5
Medium 3926 58.4 2685 59.2
High 1654 22.0 1409 23.3
Missings 77 - 2 -
Domestic secondhand smoke exposure Daily 465 8.9 52 2.4
Several times a week 155 2.8 10 0.2
Once a week 46 0.7 16 0.3
Less often 686 11.4 109 3.6
Never 5210 76.1 4266 93.4
Missings 118 - 2 -
Paternal smoking behaviour Yes 2593 42.0 1236 34.7
No 3778 58.0 2914 65.3
Missings 309 - 305 -
Maternal smoking behaviour Yes 1932 31.0 890 25.1
No 4661 69.0 3555 74.9
Missings 87 - 10 -
Parental smoking behaviour Both parents smoke 1256 21.0 484 15.4
One parent smokes 1809 28.7 1019 26.4
Neither parent smokes 3273 50.2 2638 58.2
Missings 342 - 314 -
  1. aUnweighted
  2. bPercentages were calculated without missing values and weighted with regard to age, gender, region, nationality, type of municipality, and the education status of the head of the household (population structure in Germany 2009/2010)