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Table 1 Characteristics of participants by residential areas

From: Health inequalities in hypertension and diabetes management among the poor in urban areas: a population survey analysis in south Korea

  Male    Female
  Total Urban Rural P-value Total Urban Rural P-value
  (n = 7,033,
N = 1.54a)
(n = 5,440,
N = 1.21a)
(n = 1,593,
N = 0.33a)
  (n = 9,398,
N = 1.61a)
(n = 7,333,
N = 1.26a)
(n = 2,065,
N = 0.35a)
 
Age, years     <0.001     <0.001
 30–44 41.0 (0.9) 43.7 (1.0) 31.3 (2.1)   37.5 (0.8) 40.6 (0.9) 26.1 (1.6)  
 45–64 44.0 (0.8) 43.4 (0.9) 45.9 (2.1)   41.9 (0.7) 42.4 (0.8) 40.4 (1.4)  
  > 64 years 15.0 (0.5) 12.8 (0.5) 22.8 (1.1)   20.6 (0.5) 17.1 (0.5) 33.4 (1.4)  
BMI, kg/m2 24.2 (0.05) 24.3 (0.1) 23.9 (0.1) 0.01 23.7 (0.05) 23.6 (0.06) 24.2 (0.1) <0.001
Educational level     <0.001     <0.001
  ≤ Elementary school 15.2 (0.6) 11.8 (0.6) 27.4 (1.8)   31.0 (0.7) 25.2 (0.8) 52.4 (2.3)  
 Middle/high school 47.5 (0.5) 46.2 (0.9) 52.0 (1.9)   44.8 (0.4) 47.0 (0.8) 36.8 (1.8)  
  ≥ College 37.3 (0.9) 41.9 (1.0) 20.6 (2.0)   24.2 (0.7) 27.8 (0.9) 10.8 (1.4)  
Monthly income (thousand wonb)     <0.001     <0.001
  ≤ 1000 23.8 (0.8) 20.7 (0.8) 34.8 (1.9)   30.3 (0.8) 26.4 (0.8) 44.5 (1.8)  
 1001–3000 59.4 (0.8) 61.7 (0.9) 50.9 (1.7)   54.8 (0.8) 57.7 (0.9) 44.2 (1.7)  
  > 3000 16.9 (0.7) 17.6 (0.8) 14.3 (1.2)   14.9 (0.6) 15.9 (0.7) 11.3 (1.1)  
Marital status     0.719     <0.001
 Married 83.6 (0.7) 83.4 (0.8) 84.0 (1.4)   76.4 (0.6) 77.7 (0.6) 71.7 (1.5)  
 othersc 16.4 (0.7) 16.6 (0.8) 16.0 (1.4)   23.6 (0.6) 22.3 (0.6) 28.3 (1.5)  
Smoking status     0.524     0.067
 Current 46.7 (0.8) 46.5 (0.9) 47.1 (1.3)   6.1 (0.3) 6.2 (0.4) 5.8 (0.8)  
 Ex-smoker 38.0 (0.7) 38.3 (0.8) 36.6 (1.6)   5.6 (0.3) 6.0 (0.3) 4.0 (0.6)  
 Non-smoker 15.4 (0.5) 15.1 (0.6) 16.3 (1.1)   88.4 (0.4) 87.8 (0.5) 90.2 (1.0)  
Alcohol drinkingd     <0.001     <0.001
 Rarely or never 30.5 (0.7) 29.1 (0.8) 35.9 (1.5)   68.2 (0.6) 66.9 (0.7) 73.2 (1.5)  
  < 1/month 15.4 (0.5) 16.0 (0.6) 13.2 (1.1)   15.0 (0.5) 15.2 (0.6) 14.2 (1.2)  
  ≥ 1/month 54.1 (0.8) 54.9 (0.8) 51.0 (1.8)   16.8 (0.5) 17.9 (0.6) 12.6 (1.0)  
Regular physical
exerciser
48.6 (0.8) 48.7 (0.8) 48.5 (1.8) 0.939 42.7 (0.7) 43.2 (0.7) 41.0 (1.7) 0.261
Medical accessibility     0.026     <0.001
 No 85.5 (0.6) 86.2 (0.6) 82.8 (1.5)   78.5 (0.6) 80.2 (0.6) 72.4 (1.5)  
 Yes 14.5 (0.6) 13.8 (0.6) 17.2 (1.5)   21.5 (0.6) 19.8 (0.6) 27.6 (1.5)  
     0.017     <0.001
Economic reasons 13.7 (1.3) 14.9 (1.6) 10.2 (2.3)   24.6 (1.3) 25.7 (1.6) 21.5 (2.4)  
Traffic
inconvenience
1.7 (0.6) 0.9 (0.5) 4.2 (1.8)   5.4 (0.6) 2.3 (0.5) 13.6 (2.0)  
Others 84.6 (1.4) 84.3 (1.7) 85.5 (3.1)   70.1 (1.4) 72.0 (1.6) 64.9 (2.8)  
  1. Data are % (standard error [SE]) or mean (standard deviations [SD])
  2. Abbreviations: BMI body mass index
  3. Data are weighted to the residential population of Korea
  4. an: unweighted sample size, N: weighted sample size in millions
  5. bThe exchange rate is approximately 1100 Korean won for 1 US dollar
  6. cIncluding widowed and divorced persons
  7. dThe frequency of high risk drinking, high risk drinking is defined as consuming more than 7 standard drinks per each occasion on average