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Table 4 Longitudinal repeated measures mixed effects model showing the associations between predictors and paternal depressive symptoms in the Millennium Cohort Study across all time points a

From: The prevalence of depressive symptoms among fathers and associated risk factors during the first seven years of their child’s life: findings from the Millennium Cohort Study

Predictors from all sweeps Coefficient (95 % CI)b p
MCS wave   
Wave 1 reference group  
Wave 2 -0.49 (-0.61 - -0.37) <0.001
Wave 3 -0.44 (-0.56 - -0.31) <0.001
Wave 4 -0.38 (-0.49 - -0.22) <0.001
Family context factors   
Maternal depressive symptoms 0.08 (0.06 - 0.10) <0.001
Marital conflict 0.84 (0.77 - 0.91) <0.001
Socioeconomic factors   
Paternal education   0.522
 No qualifications reference group  
 School level, Degree or higher -0.10 (-0.40 - 0.20)  
Ethnic background   
 White reference group  
 Indian, Pakistani, & Bangladeshi 0.56 (0.05 - 1.07) 0.031
 Afro-Caribbean & British afro-Caribbean -0.74 (-1.23 - 0.25) 0.003
 Mixed, other 0.76 (-0.01 - 1.53) 0.053
Fathers employment   
 Employed reference group  
 Unemployed 1.13 (0.70 - 1.56) <0.001
Housing tenure   0.001
 Council and private renting, % reference group  
 home owner, % -0.41 (-0.66 - -0.17)  
Family income (per £1000 p.a.) -0.31 (-0.58 - -0.06) 0.022
  1. a Finite population correction factor could not be fitted onto model, but all other required weights (accounting for clustering, attrition/non-response and oversampling for ethnic minorities/disadvantaged participants) were incorporated
  2. b Sample size 4766