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Table 3 The associations between predictors and paternal depressive symptoms in the Millennium Cohort Study

From: The prevalence of depressive symptoms among fathers and associated risk factors during the first seven years of their child’s life: findings from the Millennium Cohort Study

Predictors at each sweep Unadjusteda Adjustedb
Coefficient (95 % CI) p Coefficient (95 % CI) p
Predictors (Sweep 1 when child 9-months old)
Family context factors     
Maternal depressive symptoms 0.17 (0.15-0.19) <0.001 0.11 (0.08 - 0.13) <0.001
Marital conflict 1.18 (1.18-1.38) <0.001 1.12 (1.01 – 1.23) <0.001
Child temperament -0.05 ( -0.07- 0.03) <0.001 -0.01 (-0.03- -0.00) 0.097
Child gender -0.01 (0.13 – 0.04) 0.133   
Socioeconomic factors     
Paternal education   <0.001   0.011
 No qualifications reference group    
 School level, Degree or higher -0.17 (-1.42- -0.92)   -0.45 (-0.79- -0.10)  
Ethnic background   0.028   
 White reference group    
 Indian, Pakistani, & Bangladeshi 0.23 ( -0.10- 0.56)    
 Afro-Caribbean & British afro-Caribbean -0.80 (-1.46- -0.14)    
 Mixed, other 0.14 ( -0.42- 0.71)    
Fathers work status     
 Employed reference group    
 Unemployed 1.94 (1.56-2.32) <0.001 0.94 (0.41 -1.46) <0.001
Housing tenure   <0.001   <0.004
 Council and private renting, % Reference group    
 home owner, % -1.40 (-1.62- -1.18)   -0.41 (-0.69- -0.13)  
Family income (per £1000 p.a.) -2.53 (-2.98- -2.08) <0.001 -0.35 (-0.90-0.21) 0.219
Paternal age -0.40 (-0.55- -0.25) <0.001 -0.08 (-0.25-0.10) 0.395
Predictors (Sweep 2 when child 3 years old)
Family context factors     
Maternal depressive symptoms 0.17 (0.14-0.20) <0.001 0.09 (0.05 -0.12) <0.001
Marital conflict 1.14 (1.05-1.23) <0.001 1.06 (0.95-1.17) <0.001
Child temperament -0.03 (-0.04- -0.01) <0.001 -0.01 (-0.02-0.01) 0.321
Child gender -0.08 (-0.21- 0.06) 0.273   
Socioeconomic factors     
Paternal education   0.013   
 No qualifications reference group    
 School level, Degree or higher -0.30 (-0.53- -0.06)    
Ethnic background   <0.001   0.017
 White reference group    
 Indian, Pakistani, & Bangladeshi 0.80 (0.45-1.15)   0.60 (0.03-1.18)  
 Afro-Caribbean & British afro-Caribbean -0.26 (-0.89-0.36)   -0.50 (-1.71-0.70)  
 Mixed, other 0.99 (0.34-1.64)   0.99 (0.10-1.88)  
Fathers employment     
 Employed reference group    
 Unemployed 1.81 (1.43-2.19) <0.001 0.97 (0.48-1.45) <0.001
Housing tenure   <0.001   
 Council and private renting, % reference group    0.128
 home owner, % -1.03 (-1.28- -0.78)   -0.25 (-0.57- -0.07)  
Family income (per £1000 p.a.) -1.20 (-1.51- -0.88) <0.001 -0.25 (-0.13-0.62) 0.195
Paternal age -0.18 (-0.31- -0.04) 0.010   
Predictors (Sweep 3 when child 5 years old)
Family context factors     
Maternal depressive symptoms 0.17 (0.14-0.20) <0.001 0.08 (0.04-0.11) <0.001
Marital conflict 1.20 (1.10-1.30) <0.001 1.09 (0.96-1.22) <0.001
Child temperament -0.02 (-0.04- -0.01) 0.008 -0.00 (-0.02-0.02) 0.987
Child gender -0.12 (-0.28-0.04) 0.140   
Socioeconomic factors     
Paternal education   <0.001   0.878
 No qualifications reference group    
 School level, Degree or higher -0.99 (-1.34- -0.65)   0.03 (-0.37-0.43)  
Ethnic background   <0.001   0.001
 White reference group    
 Indian, Pakistani, & Bangladeshi 1.01 (0.53-1.49)   1 .09 (0.45-1.72)  
 Afro-Caribbean & British afro-Caribbean -0.59 (-0.95- -0.23)   -0.36 (-1.12-0.40)  
 Mixed, other 1.62 (0.76-2.47)   0.73 (-0.13-1.60)  
Fathers employment     
 Employed reference group    
 Unemployed 3.01 (2.47-3.56) <0.001 2.44 (1.66 -3.22) <0.001
Housing tenure   <0.001   0.366
 Council and private renting, % reference group    
 home owner, % -1.41 ( -1.65- -1.17)   -0.18 (-0.57- 0.21)  
Family income (per £1000 p.a.) -2.08 (-2.48- -1.69) <0.001 -0.68 (-1.12 - -0.24) 0.002
Paternal age -0.11 (-0.25 - 0 .02) 0.088   
Predictors (Sweep 4 when child 7 years old)
Family context factors     
Maternal depressive symptoms 0.18 (0.14-0.22) <0.001 0.09 (0.04-0.15) 0.001
Marital conflict 1.08 (0.97-1.19) <0.001 1.00 (0.84-1.15) <0.001
Child temperament -0.02 (-0.04- -0.00) <0.001 -0.00 (-0.02-0.01) 0.713
Child gender -0.14 (-0.31-0.04) 0.129   
Socioeconomic factors     
Paternal education   0.019   
 No qualifications reference group    
 School level, Degree or higher -0.66 (-1.04 - -0.28)    
Ethnic background   0.001   0.589
 White reference group    
 Indian, Pakistani, & Bangladeshi 1.20 (0.59-1.81)   0.32 (-0.37-1.01)  
 Afro-Caribbean & British afro-Caribbean -0.01 (-0.68-0.67)   -0.19 (-1.20-0.83)  
 Mixed, other 1.35 (0.15-2.55)   0.87 (-0.68-2.43)  
Fathers employment     
 Employed reference group    
 Unemployed 2.78 (2.20-3.37) <0.001 2.40 (1.44-3.37) <0.001
Housing tenure   <0.001   0.066
 Council and private renting, % reference group    
 home owner, % -1.28 (-1.59- -0.97)   -0.40 (-0.83 - -0.03)  
Family income (per £1000 p.a.) -2.01 (-2.43- -1.58) <0.001 -0.61 (-1.10- -0.13) 0.014
Paternal age -0.10 (-0.26-0.06) 0.229   
  1. a Sample size ranged from 4612 to 12,396 due to missing data in the variables
  2. b Sample size range was 3833 to 6831