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Table 1 Characteristics of study sample (N = 4340)

From: Association of adiponectin and socioeconomic status in African American men and women: the Jackson heart study

  Men Women P-value
(n = 1604, 36.96 %) (n = 2736, 63.04 %)  
Age (years), mean ± std. 53.86 ± 13.00 55.06 ± 12.63 .002
Socioeconomic Indicators
Annual household income, %
≤ $19,999 20.95 33.77
$20,000–$49,999 33.29 38.49
≥$50,000 45.76 27.74 <.0001
Educational level, %
<high school 18.02 16.63
High school or GED 18.70 19.63
Some college or vocational 29.61 29.82
≥College graduate 33.67 33.92 .65
Health Behavior
Current smoker,% 17.75 10.92 <.0001
Physical activity score, mean ± std. 8.71 ± 2.61 8.27 ± 2.57 <.0001
Alcohol consumption, % 60.24 39.80 <.0001
BMI(kg/m2), mean ± std. 29.84 ± 6.22 32.92 ± 7.63 <.0001
Health Status
Hypertension,% 59.86 63.84 .009
Systolic blood pressure(mmHg), mean ± std. 127.9 ± 17.82 126.2 ± 18.42 .004
Diastolic blood pressure(mmHg), mean ± std. 81.45 ± 10.54 77.26 ± 10.12 <.0001
Type 2 diabetes,% 15.57 19.15 .003
LDL cholesterol (mg/dL), mean ± std. 128.7 ± 36.51 125.5 ± 36.21 .006
HDL cholesterol (mg/dL), mean ± std. 45.96 ± 12.45 55.19 ± 14.61 <.0001
Triglyceride level (mg/dL), mean ± std. 114.1 ± 90.22 100.3 ± 60.35 <.0001
HOMA-IR, mean ± std. 3.43 ± 2.39 3.78 ± 2.44 <.0001
C-reactive protein (mg/dL), mean ± std. .37 ± 1.04 .60 ± 0.84 <.0001
Plasma adiponectin (ug/mL), mean ± std. 4.15 ± 3.36 6.09 ± 4.56 <.0001
  1. Abbreviations: std standard deviation, GED graduate equivalency diploma, BMI body mass index, LDL low-density lipoprotein, HDL high-density lipoprotein, HOMA-IR homoeostasis model assessment-insulin resistance