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Table 3 Correlation coefficients between provincial levels of demographic, behavioural and pathophysiological factors, by sex

From: National survey of risk factors for non-communicable disease in Vietnam: prevalence estimates and an assessment of their validity

Women Urban popa Minority ethnicityb Years at school c H’hold incomed Current smokerse Alcohol intake f Fruit/veg servesg Physical activityh BMIi Raised BPj Elevated glucosek Cholesteroll
Men
Urban populationa (%)   −0.5m 0.27 0.73 −0.34 0.23 −0.04 −0.92 0.86 −0.20 0.41 0.75
Minority ethnicityb (%) −0.52   −0.06 −0.58 0.79m 0.50m 0.35 0.55 −0.62 0.28 0.24 −0.49
Years at schoolc 0.56m −0.44   0.76 −0.31 0.25 0.72 −0.16 0.21 −0.55 −0.33 −0.16
Household incomed 0.65 −0.59m 0.98   −0.56m 0.03 0.30 −0.66 0.62 −0.53m −0.14 0.39
Current smokere (%) 0.05 −0.32 −0.32 −0.18   0.45 0.29 0.23 −0.50m 0.09 0.18 −0.29
Alcohol intakef 0.07 −0.29 −0.55m −0.41 0.36   0.49 0.00 −0.10 −0.24 0.15 −0.22
Fruit/vegetable servesg −0.16 0.06 0.46 0.34 −0.13 −0.87m   0.03 −0.06 −0.68 −0.40 −0.45
Physical activityh (%) −0.88 0.57 −0.56 −0.64 −0.16n −0.14 0.12   −0.89 0.25n −0.38 −0.82
BMIi 0.78 −0.25 0.82 0.82 −0.39 −0.32 0.07 −0.74   −0.18n 0.38 0.77
Raised BPj (%) −0.57m 0.35 −0.39 −0.42 −0.43 0.13 −0.33 0.77n −0.39n   0.61 0.10
Elevated glucosek (%) 0.50m 0.12 0.22 0.19 −0.63m −0.05 −0.19 −0.39 0.65 −0.02   0.65
Cholesteroll 0.82 −0.33 0.33 0.43 −0.03 0.22 −0.39 −0.82 0.76 −0.41n 0.71  
  1. aProportion of urban population; bProportion of non–Vietnamese minority ethnic group; cMean years of schooling;dMean household income per adult person per month (USD), eProportion of current smokers; fProportion with binge drinking (≥4 standard drinks for females, and ≥5 standard drinks for males, on any day last week); gMean daily servings of fruit and vegetables; hProportion with high levels of physical activity (≥3000 MET–minutes per week); iMean body mass index (kg/m2); jProportion with raised blood pressure (systolic pressure ≥140 mmHg and/or diastolic pressure ≥90 mmHg); kProportion with fasting blood glucose values >6.1 mmol/L or taking medications for diabetes; lMean fasting total cholesterol values (mmol/L); mWeaker individual–level correlation [absolute(rprovince) ≥0.5 but absolute(rindividual) <0.05]; n Individual–level correlation of opposite sign (rprovince >0.10 and rindividual > −0.10 or rprovince > −0.10 and rindividual >0.10)