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Table 1 Descriptive statistics by wealth group

From: Utilisation of health services and the poor: deconstructing wealth-based differences in facility-based delivery in the Philippines

Variable Poor (P) Non-Poor (NP)   
  Mean S.D. Mean S.D. Differential NP-P S.E.  
Dependent variables        
Facility-based delivery 0.41 (0.49) 0.75 (0.44) 0.34 (0.02) ***
Supply factor        
Distance to health facility 0.43 (0.49) 0.20 (0.40) −0.23 (0.02) ***
Socioeconomic factors        
Mother’s Education:        
 None 0.03 (0.17) 0.002 (0.04) −0.03 (0.005) ***
 Incomplete Primary 0.20 (0.40) 0.021 (0.14) −0.18 (0.01) ***
 Complete Primary 0.16 (0.37) 0.052 (0.22) −0.11 (0.01) ***
 Secondary or more 0.61 (0.49) 0.925 (0.26) 0.32 (0.02) ***
Partner’s Education:        
 None 0.04 (0.19) 0.003 (0.06) −0.03 (0.006) ***
 Incomplete Primary 0.29 (0.45) 0.03 (0.18) −0.25 (0.01) ***
 Complete Primary 0.18 (0.38) 0.06 (0.23) −0.12 (0.01) ***
 Secondary or more 0.48 (0.50) 0.86 (0.35) 0.38 (0.01) ***
Mother watches television 0.57 (0.49) 0.91 (0.29) 0.33 (0.02) ***
Mother’s Employment        
 Agriculture 0.16 (0.36) 0.02 (0.13) −0.14 (0.01) ***
 None 0.56 (0.50) 0.46 (0.50) −0.10 (0.02) ***
 Manual 0.09 (0.28) 0.10 (0.31) 0.02 (0.01)  
 Professional 0.19 (0.40) 0.42 (0.49) 0.23 (0.01) ***
Partner’s Employment        
 Agriculture 0.49 (0.50) 0.09 (0.29) −0.40 (0.02) ***
 None 0.01 (0.11) 0.02 (0.13) 0.01 (0.004)  
 Manual 0.38 (0.49) 0.46 (0.50) 0.08 (0.02) ***
 Professional 0.10 (0.30) 0.39 (0.49) 0.28 (0.01) ***
Maternal factors        
Multiple birth 0.01 (0.12) 0.01 (0.12) −0.00 (0.004)  
Previously term. preg. 0.18 (0.39) 0.15 (0.36) −0.03 (0.01) **
Child’s birth order        
 1 0.22 (0.42) 0.39 (0.49) 0.17 (0.01) ***
 2-4 0.50 (0.50) 0.53 (0.50) 0.03 (0.01) **
  > 4 0.28 (0.45) 0.09 (0.28) −0.19 (0.01) ***
Mother’s age at birth        
 15-19 0.12 (0.33) 0.12 (0.33) 0.00 (0.01)  
 20-29 0.50 (0.50) 0.52 (0.50) 0.02 (0.01)  
 30-49 0.38 (0.48) 0.36 (0.48) −0.02 (0.01)  
Sociocultural factors        
Religion        
 Catholic 0.71 (0.45) 0.84 (0.36) 0.13 (0.02) ***
 Protestant 0.06 (0.25) 0.04 (0.19) −0.03 (0.01) ***
 Islam 0.12 (0.33) 0.03 (0.16) −0.09 (0.02) ***
 Other 0.11 (0.31) 0.09 (0.29) −0.01 (0.01)  
Mother’s Marital Status        
 Married 0.67 (0.47) 0.59 (0.49) −0.08 (0.02) ***
 Living together 0.29 (0.46) 0.30 (0.46) 0.01 (0.02)  
 Other 0.04 (0.20) 0.11 (0.31) 0.07 (0.01) ***
Geography        
 NCR 0.04 (0.19) 0.25 (0.44) 0.22 (0.02) ***
 CAR 0.01 (0.10) 0.02 (0.14) 0.01 (0.004) **
 Ilocos 0.05 (0.21) 0.04 (0.21) −0.00 (0.01)  
 Cagayan Valley 0.04 (0.20) 0.03 (0.18) −0.01 (0.01)  
 Central Luzon 0.06 (0.23) 0.13 (0.33) 0.07 (0.01) ***
 CALABARZON 0.07 (0.25) 0.18 (0.39) 0.12 (0.02) ***
 MIMAROPA 0.04 (0.20) 0.01 (0.12) −0.03 (0.01) ***
 Bicol 0.09 (0.28) 0.04 (0.20) −0.04 (0.01) ***
 Western Visayas 0.09 (0.29) 0.05 (0.21) −0.05 (0.01) ***
 Central Visayas 0.08 (0.27) 0.05 (0.23) −0.02 (0.01) *
 Eastern Visayas 0.05 (0.22) 0.03 (0.16) −0.03 (0.01) **
 Zamboanga Peninsula 0.07 (0.25) 0.03 (0.17) −0.04 (0.01) ***
 Northern Mindanao 0.07 (0.25) 0.03 (0.16) −0.04 (0.01) ***
 Davao Peninsula 0.07 (0.25) 0.05 (0.21) −0.02 (0.01) *
 SOCCSKSARGEN 0.07 (0.25) 0.03 (0.16) −0.04 (0.01) ***
 Caraga 0.04 (0.21) 0.02 (0.15) −0.02 (0.01) ***
 ARMM 0.07 (0.26) 0.004 (0.06) −0.07 (0.01) ***
Obs. 3,873   3,248     
  1. Notes: Poor and non-poor groups are defined by the bottom two quintiles and top three quintiles, respectively. Differentials are proportional differences. Tests on the equality of proportions are two-tailed and (*), (**) and (***) represent statistical significance at 10 %, 5 % and 1 % levels, respectively. S.D., standard deviation; S.E., standard error; Obs., observations; term. preg., terminated pregnancy