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Table 1 Baseline characteristics of VIDUS and ACCESS participants who smoked crack in Vancouver, Canada, stratified by public crack smoking (n = 1085)

From: Risky and rushed public crack cocaine smoking: the potential for supervised inhalation facilities

Characteristic Smoked crack in publica244 (22.5 %) n (%) Did not smoke crack in publicb841 (77.5 %) n (%) Odds ratio (95 % CI) p - value
Age     
  Median years 42.1 47.2 1.05 (1.04, 1.08) <0.001
  (IQR) (36.1 – 47.0) (40.7 – 52.5)   
Gender     
  Female 93 (38.1) 307 (36.5) 1.07 (0.80, 1.44) 0.646
  Male 151 (61.9) 534 (63.5)   
HIV serostatus     
  Positive 90 (36.9) 406 (48.3) 0.63 (0.47, 0.84) 0.002
  Negative 154 (63.1) 435 (51.7)   
Homelessnessc,d     
  Yes 115 (47.1) 109 (13.0) 6.02 (4.36, 8.31) <0.001
  No 128 (52.5) 730 (86.8)   
Drug Dealingc     
  Yes 106 (43.4) 156 (18.5) 3.37 (2.48, 4.59) <0.001
  No 138 (56.6) 685 (81.5)   
Sex workc, a     
  Yes 40 (16.4) 95 (11.3) 1.56 (1.05, 2.33) 0.029
  No 201 (82.4) 745 (88.6)   
Crack smokingc,d     
   ≥ Daily 136 (55.7) 254 (30.2) 2.90 (2.16, 3.89) <0.001
   < Daily 108 (44.3) 585 (69.6)   
Shared crack pipec     
  Yes 143 (58.6) 384 (45.7) 1.68 (1.26, 2.25) <0.001
  No 101 (41.4) 457 (54.3)   
Binge non-injection drug usec     
  Yes 99 (40.6) 341 (40.5) 1.01 (0.75, 1.34) 0.994
  No 145 (59.4) 500 (59.5)   
Heroin injectionc     
   ≥ Daily 78 (32.0) 113 (13.4) 3.03 (2.17, 4.23) <0.001
   < Daily 166 (68.0) 728 (86.6)   
Cocaine injectionc,d     
   ≥ Daily 28 (11.5) 43 (5.1) 2.40 (1.46, 3.95) <0.001
   < Daily 216 (88.5) 796 (94.6)   
Crystal meth injectionc     
   ≥ Daily 10 (4.1) 27 (3.2) 1.29 (0.61, 2.70) 0.501
   < Daily 234 (95.9) 814 (96.8)   
Public injection drug usec,d     
  Always or usually 59 (24.2) 19 (2.3) 13.80 (8.04, 23.72) <0.001
  Sometimes, occasionally or never 184 (75.4) 818 (97.3)   
Noticed police presencec,d     
  Yes 175 (71.7) 536 (63.7) 1.47 (1.07, 2.02) 0.016
  No 67 (27.5) 302 (35.9)   
Stopped, searched or detained without arrest by policec,d
  Yes 57 (23.4) 90 (10.7) 2.62 (1.81, 3.80) <0.001
  No 181 (74.2) 750 (89.2)   
Incarcerationc, a     
  Yes 43 (17.6) 55 (6.5) 3.13 (2.04, 4.81) <0.001
  No 196 (80.3) 785 (93.3)   
Drug addiction treatment (excluding methadone)c,d
  Yes 148 (60.7) 525 (62.4) 0.96 (0.71, 1.28) 0.766
  No 92 (37.7) 312 (37.1)   
Victim of violencec,d     
  Yes 39 (16.0) 128 (15.2) 1.08 (0.73, 1.59) 0.710
  No 200 (82.0) 707 (84.1)   
  1. aDefined as “always” or “usually” smoking crack in public in the previous six months
  2. bDefined as “sometimes,” “occasionally” or “never” smoking crack in public in the previous six months
  3. cDenotes activities/events in the previous six months
  4. dCounts may not add up to column totals due to missing responses