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Table 3 Associations among risk behaviours at ages 14, 16 and 19

From: The correlates and course of multiple health risk behaviour in adolescence

  Engagement in other risk behaviours
  Reg. smoking Reg. alcohol use Ever tried cannabis Delinquency
  % (95 % CI) % (95 % CI) % (95 % CI) % (95 % CI)
Panel A: Age 14
 Reg. smokers 30.0 (26.3, 34.0) 58.3 (54.0, 62.6) 77.2 (73.4, 80.6)
 Non-regular smokers 6.4 (5.8, 7.0) 6.5 (6.0, 7.1) 25.5 (24.5, 26.5)
Association: OR 6.0 (4.8, 7.5) 22.2 (18.0, 27.3) 11.0 (8.8, 13.7)
 Reg. alcohol users 22.9 (19.9, 26.2) 36.9 (33.3, 40.6) 62.3 (58.9, 65.5)
 Not regular users 4.5 (4.0, 5.1) 7.5 (6.9, 8.1) 25.7 (24.6, 26.8)
Association: OR 6.0 (4.8, 7.5) 6.8 (5.6, 8.1) 4.7 (4.0, 5.5)
 Tried Cannabis 35.6 (32.7, 38.7) 29.1 (26.3, 32.0) 71.4 (68.5, 74.1)
 Not tried Cannabis 2.7 (2.3, 3.1) 5.4 (4.9, 5.9) 23.8 (22.8, 24.8)
Association: OR 22.3 (18.1, 27.5) 6.8 (5.6, 8.1) 7.4 (6.3, 8.6)
 Delinquency 15.8 (14.3, 17.5) 17.0 (15.7, 18.5) 24.3 (22.7, 26.0)
 No delinquency 1.9 (1.6, 2.2) 4.1 (3.4, 4.7) 3.9 (3.4, 4.4)
Association: OR 11.1 (8.9, 13.8) 4.7 (4.0, 5.5) 7.4 (6.3, 8.6)
Panel B: Age 16
 Reg. smokers 46.2 (43.3, 49.1) 73.0 (70.7, 75.3) 50.1 (47.3, 52.9)
 Non-regular smokers 13.9 (12.9, 14.8) 18.2 (17.2, 19.3) 15.5 (14.6, 16.4)
Association: OR 5.3 (4.7, 6.1) 13.0 (11.4, 14.9) 6.1 (5.3, 7.0)
 Reg. alcohol users 40.1 (38.3, 43.6) 62.7 (60.1, 65.2) 48.1 (45.4, 50.8)
 Not regular users 11.5 (10.6, 12.4) 20.0 (19.0, 21.0) 15.6 (14.7, 16.5)
Association: OR 5.3 (4.6, 6.1) 6.4 (5.6, 7.2) 5.2 (4.6, 5.9)
 Tried cannabis 45.4 (43.1, 47.7) 43.3 (41.1, 45.5) 46.4 (44.3, 48.6)
 Not tried 6.4 (5.8, 7.1) 10.2 (9.4, 11.0) 12.2 (11.4, 13.0)
Association: OR 13.1 (11.4, 14.9) 6.4 (5.7, 7.2) 6.4 (5.7, 7.2)
 Delinquency 40.3 (37.9, 42.7) 43.0 (40.6, 45.4) 60.0 (57.6, 62.2)
 No delinquency 11.0 (10.1, 11.9) 13.0 (12.1, 14.0) 19.3 (18.3, 20.3)
Association: OR 6.1 (5.3, 7.0) 5.2 (4.6, 5.9) 6.4 (5.7, 7.2)
  Engagement in other risk behaviours
  Heavy alcohol use Drug use, 30 days Sexual Risk  
  % (95 % CI) % (95 % CI) % (95 % CI)  
Panel C: Age 19
 Heavy alcohol use 28.2 (25.8, 30.7) 19.3 (17.1, 21.7)  
 Non-heavy or no use 10.5 (9.6, 11.4) 12.1 (11.2, 13.2)  
Association: OR 3.1 (1.7, 2.3) 1.9 (1.6, 2.2)  
 Drugs 40.7 (37.4, 44.1) 26.8 (23.8, 30.1)  
 No drugs 17.0 (15.9, 18.3) 11.3 (10.4, 12.3)  
Association: OR 3.1 (2.6, 3.6) 2.7 (2.3, 3.3)  
 Sexual Risk 29.3 (26.3, 32.6) 28.2 (25.2, 31.5)  
 No sexual risk 19.3 (18.1, 20.6) 12.1 (11.2, 13.0)  
Association: OR 1.9 (1.6, 2.2) 2.7 (2.3, 3.3)  
  1. Prevalence of risk behaviours (%) by other risk involvement and odds-ratios (ORs; in bold) for the association between risk behaviours, controlled for gender, ethnicity and area deprivation (English Index of Multiple Deprivation; IMD). Panel A shows associations at age 14, Panel B shows associations at age 16 and Panel C shows associations at age 19