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Table 3 Unadjusted and Multivariable Adjusted Associations* of 3-category Exposure with Perinatal Risk Factors for Childhood Obesity, data from the Linked Century Study 2004–2008 (N = 30,014)

From: Association of missing paternal demographics on infant birth certificates with perinatal risk factors for childhood obesity

   Model 1 Model 2 Model 3 Model 4 Model 5 Model 6
Outcome Exposure OR (95 % CI)   
Smoked during pregnancy       
  Missing paternal data 11.08 (9.03,13.60) 11.09 (9.03,13.61) 19.06 (15.25,23.81) - 13.39 (10.65,16.84) 7.37 (5.75, 9.44)
  Paternal data, not married 10.26 (8.92,11.79) 10.26 (8.93,11.80) 13.55 (11.67,15.74) - 10.33 (8.85,12.04) 6.09 (5.12, 7.25)
  Paternal data, married 1.00 (Reference) 1.00 (Reference) 1.00 (Reference) - 1.00 (Reference) 1.00 (Reference)
Gestational diabetes       
  Missing paternal data 0.99 (0.73, 1.35) 0.99 (0.73, 1.35) 0.98 (0.71, 1.35) 0.95 (0.69, 1.30) 0.98 (0.71, 1.35) 1.00 (0.71, 1.39)
  Paternal data, not married 0.82 (0.69, 0.98) 0.82 (0.69, 0.98) 0.88 (0.73, 1.06) 0.85 (0.70, 1.03) 0.87 (0.72, 1.06) 0.89 (0.72, 1.08)
  Paternal data, married 1.00 (Reference) 1.00 (Reference) 1.00 (Reference) 1.00 (Reference) 1.00 (Reference) 1.00 (Reference)
Initiated breastfeeding       
  Missing paternal data 0.32 (0.28, 0.37) 0.33 (0.29, 0.38) 0.21 (0.18, 0.25) 0.27 (0.23, 0.32) 0.31 (0.26, 0.36) 0.36 (0.30, 0.43)
  Paternal data, not married 0.36 (0.33, 0.39) 0.36 (0.33, 0.39) 0.27 (0.25, 0.30) 0.34 (0.31, 0.37) 0.37 (0.34, 0.41) 0.42 (0.38, 0.47)
  Paternal data, married 1.00 (Reference) 1.00 (Reference) 1.00 (Reference) 1.00 (Reference) 1.00 (Reference) 1.00 (Reference)
WFL ever ≥95th percentile, 0–24 moa       
  Missing paternal data 1.39 (1.20, 1.63) 1.38 (1.18, 1.61) 1.21 (1.03, 1.42) 1.16 (0.99, 1.37) 1.18 (1.00, 1.39) 1.17 (0.99, 1.39)
  Paternal data, not married 1.28 (1.17, 1.39) 1.29 (1.18, 1.40) 1.19 (1.09, 1.31) 1.16 (1.05, 1.27) 1.17 (1.06, 1.29) 1.16 (1.05, 1.29)
  Paternal data, married 1.00 (Reference) 1.00 (Reference) 1.00 (Reference) 1.00 (Reference) 1.00 (Reference) 1.00 (Reference)
Crossed ≥2 major WFL percentiles, 0–24 mob       
  Missing paternal data 1.47 (0.93, 2.33) 1.46 (0.93, 2.31) 1.45 (0.91, 2.31) 1.43 (0.90, 2.28) 1.50 (0.94, 2.39) 1.52 (0.94, 2.45)
  Paternal data, not married 0.91 (0.74, 1.12) 0.92 (0.75, 1.14) 0.92 (0.74, 1.15) 0.90 (0.72, 1.12) 0.94 (0.75, 1.17) 0.95 (0.75, 1.20)
  Paternal data, married 1.00 (Reference) 1.00 (Reference) 1.00 (Reference) 1.00 (Reference) 1.00 (Reference) 1.00 (Reference)
   β (95 % CI)   
Birthweight, kg       
  Missing paternal data −0.20 (−0.24,-0.17) −0.18 (−0.21,-0.15) −0.13 (−0.16,-0.10) −0.10 (−0.13,-0.07) −0.09 (−0.12,-0.06) −0.07 (−0.10,-0.04)
  Paternal data, not married −0.11 (−0.13,-0.09) −0.11 (−0.13,-0.10) −0.08 (−0.09,-0.06) −0.05 (−0.07,-0.03) −0.05 (−0.06,-0.03) −0.03 (−0.05,-0.01)
  Paternal data, married 0.00 (Reference) 0.00 (Reference) 0.00 (Reference) 0.00 (Reference) 0.00 (Reference) 0.00 (Reference)
  1. *WFL weight-for-length, kg kilograms, OR, odds ratio, CI confidence interval. Model 1 is unadjusted. Model 2 adjusted for child gestational age at birth and sex. Model 3 added maternal age (≥35 years), parity (nulliparous), and race/ethnicity. Model 4 added smoking during pregnancy. Model 5 added maternal education. Model 6 added insurance status. Smoking during pregnancy and gestational diabetes models were not adjusted for gestational age at birth
  2. aLimited to 27,073 participants with at least 1 recorded height/weight measurement between ages 0 to 24 months. bLimited to 4,190 participants with all 4 crossings between ages 0 to 24 months (e.g., 0–6, 6–12, 12–18, 18–24)