Skip to main content

Table 2 Unadjusted and Multivariable Adjusted Associations* of 3-category Exposure with Perinatal Risk Factors for Childhood Obesity

From: Association of missing paternal demographics on infant birth certificates with perinatal risk factors for childhood obesity

   Model 1 Model 2 Model 3 Model 4 Model 5 Model 6
Outcome Exposure OR (95 % CI)   
Smoked during pregnancya       
  Missing paternal data 5.04 (4.64, 5.48) 5.04 (4.64, 5.48) 9.27 (8.45,10.17) - 6.10 (5.55, 6.72) 4.40 (3.97, 4.87)
  Paternal data, not married 5.49 (5.20, 5.80) 5.49 (5.20, 5.80) 7.63 (7.19, 8.10) - 5.43 (5.10, 5.77) 4.02 (3.75, 4.30)
  Paternal data, married 1.00 (Reference) 1.00 (Reference) 1.00 (Reference) - 1.00 (Reference) 1.00 (Reference)
Gestational diabetesb       
  Missing paternal data 0.88 (0.71, 1.10) 0.88 (0.71, 1.10) 0.78 (0.62, 0.98) 0.74 (0.59, 0.93) 0.76 (0.61, 0.96) 0.79 (0.63, 1.00)
  Paternal data, not married 0.89 (0.79, 1.00) 0.89 (0.79, 1.00) 0.86 (0.76, 0.97) 0.82 (0.72, 0.93) 0.83 (0.73, 0.94) 0.86 (0.75, 0.98)
  Paternal data, married 1.00 (Reference) 1.00 (Reference) 1.00 (Reference) 1.00 (Reference) 1.00 (Reference) 1.00 (Reference)
Initiated breastfeedingc       
  Missing paternal data 0.29 (0.28, 0.30) 0.30 (0.29, 0.32) 0.23 (0.22, 0.24) 0.29 (0.27, 0.31) 0.36 (0.34, 0.39) 0.39 (0.36, 0.42)
  Paternal data, not married 0.42 (0.41, 0.44) 0.42 (0.40, 0.43) 0.36 (0.34, 0.37) 0.40 (0.38, 0.42) 0.48 (0.46, 0.50) 0.51 (0.48, 0.53)
  Paternal data, married 1.00 (Reference) 1.00 (Reference) 1.00 (Reference) 1.00 (Reference) 1.00 (Reference) 1.00 (Reference)
WFL ever ≥95th percentile, 0–24 mod       
  Missing paternal data 1.27 (1.20, 1.35) 1.31 (1.23, 1.40) 1.13 (1.06, 1.21) 1.08 (0.99, 1.18) 1.09 (1.00, 1.18) 1.10 (1.01, 1.20)
  Paternal data, not married 1.17 (1.12, 1.23) 1.20 (1.15, 1.26) 1.10 (1.05, 1.16) 1.08 (1.02, 1.14) 1.08 (1.02, 1.14) 1.10 (1.04, 1.16)
  Paternal data, married 1.00 (Reference) 1.00 (Reference) 1.00 (Reference) 1.00 (Reference) 1.00 (Reference) 1.00 (Reference)
Crossed ≥2 major WFL percentiles, 0–24 moe       
  Missing paternal data 1.20 (1.03, 1.41) 1.19 (1.01, 1.41) 1.16 (0.98, 1.38) 1.10 (0.91, 1.35) 1.11 (0.91, 1.35) 1.14 (0.93, 1.39)
  Paternal data, not married 1.04 (0.94, 1.15) 1.03 (0.93, 1.15) 1.02 (0.91, 1.13) 1.06 (0.94, 1.19) 1.06 (0.94, 1.19) 1.08 (0.96, 1.22)
  Paternal data, married 1.00 (Reference) 1.00 (Reference) 1.00 (Reference) 1.00 (Reference) 1.00 (Reference) 1.00 (Reference)
   β (95 % CI)   
Birthweight, kg       
  Missing paternal data −0.23 (−0.24,-0.22) −0.20 (−0.21,-0.19) −0.13 (−0.14,-0.11) −0.09 (−0.10,-0.08) −0.08 (−0.10,-0.07) −0.07 (−0.08,-0.05)
  Paternal data, not married −0.14 (−0.15,-0.13) −0.12 (−0.13,-0.11) −0.07 (−0.08,-0.06) −0.05 (−0.06,-0.04) −0.05 (−0.06,-0.04) −0.03 (−0.04,-0.02)
  Paternal data, married 0.00 (Reference) 0.00 (Reference) 0.00 (Reference) 0.00 (Reference) 0.00 (Reference) 0.00 (Reference)
  1. *WFL weight-for-length, kg, kilograms OR odds ratio CI confidence interval. Model 1 is unadjusted. Model 2 adjusted for child gestational age at birth and sex. Model 3 added maternal age (≥35 years), parity (nulliparous), and race/ethnicity. Model 4 added smoking during pregnancy. Model 5 added maternal education. Model 6 added insurance status. Smoking during pregnancy and gestational diabetes models were not adjusted for gestational age at birth
  2. aSmoking during pregnancy was on birth certificate 1992 to 2008; N decreases from Model 3 to Model 4.; bOn birth certificate 1987 to 2008. cn birth certificate 1996 to 2008; dLimited to participants with at least 1 recorded height/weight measurement between ages 0 to 24 months. eLimited to participants with all 4 crossings between ages 0 to 24 months (e.g., 0–6, 6–12, 12–18, 18–24)