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Table 1 Sample Characteristics of Participants in the Linked CENTURY Study, Overall and by Exposure Categories

From: Association of missing paternal demographics on infant birth certificates with perinatal risk factors for childhood obesity

  Total N = 200,258 No paternal dataa N = 11,989 Paternal data, not married N = 19,611 Paternal data, married N = 168,658
  N (%)
Maternal Characteristics     
 Age (n = 199,909)     
 <35 years 159250 (79.7) 11098 (92.8) 17787 (90.8) 130365 (77.4)
 ≥35 years 40659 (20.3) 855 (7.2) 1795 (9.2) 38009 (22.6)
Race/ethnicity (n = 197,710)     
 White 9122 (4.6) 4086 (35.1) 10927 (56.2) 136616 (82.0)
 Black 151629 (76.7) 5978 (51.4) 5154 (26.5) 12010 (7.2)
 Hispanic 23142 (11.7) 1099 (9.4) 2405 (12.4) 5618 (3.4)
 Other 13817 (7.0) 472 (4.1) 955 (4.9) 12390 (7.4)
Nulliparous (n = 181,569)     
 No 96093 (52.9) 4168 (40.8) 7310 (39.8) 84615 (55.3)
 Yes 85476 (47.1) 6038 (59.2) 11045 (60.2) 68393 (44.7)
Education (n = 155,096)     
 Less than high school 2433 (1.2) 463 (4.0) 440 (2.3) 1530 (0.9)
 High school degree 67139 (34.0) 7643 (66.8) 11299 (58.4) 48197 (28.9)
 Some college 100245 (50.8) 2984 (26.1) 7074 (36.6) 90187 (54.1)
 College degree and higher 27671 (14.0) 351 (3.1) 529 (2.7) 26791 (16.1)
Private Insurance (n = 197,488)     
 No 19076 (12.3) 3950 (46.9) 7580 (44.0) 7546 (5.8)
 Yes 136020 (87.7) 4478 (53.1) 9636 (56.0) 121906 (94.2)
Smoked during pregnancyb (n = 116,697)     
 No 109846 (94.1) 4071 (83.8) 11753 (82.6) 94022 (96.3)
 Yes 6851 (5.9) 785 (16.2) 2469 (17.4) 3597 (3.7)
Gestational diabetesc (n = 83,836)     
 No 80952 (96.6) 2655 (96.9) 10711 (96.9) 67586 (96.5)
 Yes 2884 (3.4) 85 (3.1) 346 (3.1) 2453 (3.5)
Initiated breastfeedingc (n = 154,734)     
 No 36096 (23.3) 3889 (46.3) 6377 (37.1) 25830 (20.0)
 Yes 118638 (76.7) 4513 (53.7) 10795 (62.9) 103330 (80.0)
Child Characteristics     
Sex (n = 200,258)     
 Male 100753 (50.3) 5946 (49.6) 9708 (49.5) 85099 (50.5)
 Female 99505 (49.7) 6043 (50.4) 9903 (50.5) 83559 (49.5)
  Mean (SD)
Birthweight, kg (n = 199,925) 3.4 (0.5) 3.2 (0.6) 3.3 (0.6) 3.5 (0.5)
Gestational age at birth, weeks (n = 179,139) 39.6 (2.1) 39.4 (2.7) 39.5 (2.4) 39.7 (2.0)
WFL ever ≥95th percentile 0–24 monthsd (n = 104,540)    
 Male 100753 (50.3) 5946 (49.6) 9708 (49.5) 85099 (50.5)
 Female 99505 (49.7) 6043 (50.4) 9903 (50.5) 83559 (49.5)
Crossed ≥2 major WFL percentiles 0–24 monthse (n = 25,409)    
No 9147 (36.0) 233 (32.0) 616 (35.3) 8298 (36.2)
Yes 16262 (64.0) 494 (68.0) 1130 (64.7) 14638 (63.8)
  1. Notes: kg kilograms, WFL weight-for-length, SD standard deviation
  2. aPaternal birth certificate included age, race/ethnicity, or education status; 368 (3.1 %) of cases with missing paternal data on the birth certificate were married; bOn birth certificate 1992 to 2008; cOn birth certificate 1996 to 2008; dLimited to participants with at least 1 recorded height/weight measurement between ages 0 to 24 months. eLimited to participants with all 4 crossings between ages 0 to 24 months (e.g., 0–6, 6–12, 12–18, 18–24)