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Table 2 Univariate multinomial regression analyses showing the association between socio-demographic, psychological, health and injury-related characteristics and time to claim closure (n = 364), presented as adjusted odds ratio (OR) and 95 % confidence interval (CI)

From: Predictors of time to claim closure following a non-catastrophic injury sustained in a motor vehicle crash: a prospective cohort study

Parametersa > 12–24 months to settle claimb > 24 months to settle claimb
  OR (95 % CI) OR (95 % CI)
Age 1.00 (0.98–1.01) 0.99 (0.98–1.01)
Sex   
 Male (n = 135) 1.0 (reference) 1.0 (reference)
 Female (n = 229) 0.96 (0.54–1.74) 1.25 (0.76–2.05)
Country of birth   
 Australia (n = 236) 1.0 (reference) 1.0 (reference)
 Other (n = 128) 0.88 (0.48–1.60) 0.77 (0.47–1.27)
Educationa   
 Tertiary qualified (n = 195) 1.0 (reference) 1.0 (reference)
 Not tertiary qualified (n = 168) 0.91 (0.51–1.62) 0.90 (0.56–1.45)
Marital status   
 Single (n = 150) 1.0 (reference) 1.0 (reference)
 Married (n = 213) 1.06 (0.59–1.91) 0.89 (0.55–1.44)
Pre-injury paid work status   
 No (n = 137) 1.0 (reference) 1.0 (reference)
 Yes (n = 227) 0.88 (0.49–1.58) 1.13 (0.69–1.84)
Body mass index   
 Underweight/Normal (n = 157) 1.0 (reference) 1.0 (reference)
 Overweight/obese (n = 207) 2.72 (1.46–5.10) 1.79 (1.16–2.90)
Smoking   
 No (n = 213) 1.0 (reference) 1.0 (reference)
 Yes (n = 149) 1.30 (0.73–2.33) 0.98 (0.61–1.59)
Pre-injury health status   
 Fair/poor (n = 23) 1.0 (reference) 1.0 (reference)
 Good/very good/excellent (n = 341) 1.61 (0.45–5.76) 1.72 (0.61–4.86)
Pre-injury chronic illness   
 No (n = 218) 1.0 (reference) 1.0 (reference)
 Yes (n = 146) 1.06 (0.59–1.91) 1.31 (0.81–2.11)
Pre-injury chronic pain   
 No (n = 311) 1.0 (reference) 1.0 (reference)
 Yes (n = 53) 1.43 (0.66–3.10) 1.13 (0.58–2.22)
New injury severity scale   
 Mild (n = 310) 1.0 (reference) 1.0 (reference)
 Moderate/severe (n = 54) 3.33 (1.52–7.31) 3.20 (1.61–6.33)
Admitted to hospital (≥1 night)   
 No (n = 295) 1.0 (reference) 1.0 (reference)
 Yes (n = 69) 1.16 (0.55–2.48) 1.76 (0.99–3.15)
Whiplash (due to the car crash)   
 No (n = 139) 1.0 (reference) 1.0 (reference)
 Yes (n = 224) 1.81 (0.97–3.36) 1.43 (0.88–2.33)
Fracture (due to the car crash)   
 No (n = 333) 1.0 (reference) 1.0 (reference)
 Yes (n = 30) 5.27 (1.91–14.52) 3.71 (1.43–9.62)
OMPSQ score (per 1-unit) 1.04 (1.03–1.06) 1.04 (1.03–1.06)
PRSS-catastrophizing score (per 1-unit) 1.77 (1.41–2.24) 2.03 (1.66–2.48)
SF-12 PCS (per 1-unit) 0.93 (0.90–0.96) 0.92 (0.90–0.94)
SF-12 MCS (per 1-unit) 0.98 (0.96–1.01) 0.95 (0.93–0.98)
EQ VAS score (per 1-unit) 0.97 (0.96–0.99) 0.97 (0.96–0.98)
Lawyer involvement   
 No (n = 209) 1.0 (reference) 1.0 (reference)
 Yes (n = 114) 14.19 (6.44–31.27) 27.34 (13.28–56.26)
Previous claim   
 No (n = 283) 1.0 (reference) 1.0 (reference)
 Yes (n = 132) 1.29 (0.70–2.39) 1.13 (0.68–1.89)
  1. Pain-Related Self-Statements Scale-Catastrophizing (PRSS) score; OMPSQ short-form orebro musculoskeletal pain screening questionnaire, PCS physical component score, MCS mental component score, VAS visual analogue scale
  2. aAll parameters are those that are measured at baseline (within 3 months of sustaining the injury), except for lawyer involvement which was throughout the study period
  3. bReference group are those participants who settled their claim in 0–12 months