Skip to main content

Table 2 Factors affecting Seatbelt Compliance

From: Buckling up in Singapore: residency and other risk factors for seatbelt non-compliance – a cross-sectional study based on trauma registry data

  Seatbelt Compliance Non-compliant [Number (%)/Mean (SD)] Compliant [Number (%)/Mean (SD)] Odds Ratio 95 % CI P
Demographics Age 38.3 (SD 15.0) 41.2 (SD13.8) 1.02 1.001–1.021 <0.0001
Males 406 (13.67) 2563 (86.33) 2.17 1.86–2.53 <0.0001
Females 411 (25.58) 1196 (74.42) 1 (Ref)  
Country of Residence Singapore 649 (16.52) 3279 (83.48) 1 (Ref)   <0.0001
Malaysia 14 (11.48) 108 (88.52) 1.53 0.87–2.68
India 7 (13.73) 44 (86.27) 1.24 0.56–2.77
China 13 (28.89) 32 (71.11) 0.49 0.25–0.93
Other Nationalities 134 (31.16) 296 (68.84) 0.44 0.35–0.55
Vehicle Type Bus (capacity of 20 or more passengers) 15 (65.22) 8 (34.78) 0.09 0.04–0.22 <0.0001
Heavy Transport Vehicle 30 (10.64) 252 (89.36) 1.43 0.96–2.12
Minibus (less than 20 passengers) 4 (17.39) 19 (82.61) 0.81 0.27–2.38
Private Car 393 (14.52) 2313 (85.48) 1 (Ref)  
Taxi 231 (25.96) 659 (74.04) 0.48 0.40–0.58
Van or Pickup 33 (13.31) 215 (86.69) 1.11 0.76–1.62
Unknown vehicle 111 (27.48) 293 (72.52) 0.45 0.35–0.57
Seat Position Driver 245 (8.59) 2608 (91.41) 1 (Ref)   <0.0001
Front Passenger 105 (12.56) 731 (87.44) 0.65 0.51–0.83
Rear Passenger 441 (55.26) 357 (44.74) 0.08 0.06–0.09
Unknown position 26 (29.21) 63 (70.79) 0.23 0.14–0.37
Other Associated Risk Factors Alcohol use Alcohol Use (clinical or toxicological) 13 (17.81) 60 (82.19) 1.002 0.55–1.83 0.994
No alcohol use 777 (17.84) 3578 (82.16) 1 (ref)  
Pregnancy Pregnant 2 (66.67) 1 (33.33) 0.17 0.02–1.85 0.202
Not pregnant or status unknown, female aged below 50 209 (18.54) 918 (81.46) 1 (ref)  
Work-related Work-related 7 (8.64) 74 (91.36) 1 (ref)   0.029
Not Work-related 810 (18.04) 3681 (81.96) 2.33 1.07–5.07
Time of Arrival 0700–0959 h 92 (22.66) 314 (77.34) 1 (ref)   0.040
1000–1659 h 300 (18.21) 1347 (81.79) 1.32 1.01–1.71
1700–1959 h 126 (16.94) 618 (83.06) 1.44 1.06–1.94
2000–0659 h 299 (16.81) 1480 (83.19) 1.45 1.11–1.89
Weekdays 566 (17.36) 2695 (82.64) 1 (ref)   0.167
Weekends 251 (19.09) 1064 (80.91) 0.89 0.76–1.05