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Table 5 Estimated proportions of the impact mediated by parents’ psychological distressa,b

From: Gender-specific linkages of parents’ childhood physical abuse and neglect with children’s problem behaviour: evidence from Japan

  Externalizing Internalizing
Proportion (%) 95 % CIc Proportion (%) 95 % CI
Daughters (n = 865)
 The impact of mothers’ childhood abuse mediated by
 Mother’s psychological distress 37.9d (16.3–67.7) 41.0d (19.5–72.2)
 Father’s psychological distress −1.8 (−17.9–3.9) −1.4 (−16.3–3.2)
 Total 36.1d (10.0–66.9) 39.7d (13.8–70.0)
Sons (n = 885)
 The impact of fathers’ childhood abuse mediated by
 Mother’s psychological distress 7.2 (−4.4–23.9) 5.5 (−2.5–20.1)
 Father’s psychological distress 4.4 (−6.6–16.8) 12.1d (1.1–29.9)
 Total 11.6 (−4.7–30.9) 17.6d (3.4–39.1)
  1. Note: aK6 scale scores ≥ 5
  2. bCalculated based on the estimation results in Models 1, 1A, 2, and 2A. Fathers’ and mothers’ experiences of childhood abuse were used as covariates in estimations for daughters and sons
  3. cBias-corrected and accelerated confidence interval obtained by bootstrap estimations (with 2000 iterations), given the point-estimated total impact of parents’ childhood abuse on children’s problem behaviour
  4. dindicates that the 95 % CI does not include zero.