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Table 4 Estimated associations of children’s problem behaviour with their parents’ childhood abuse and psychological distressa

From: Gender-specific linkages of parents’ childhood physical abuse and neglect with children’s problem behaviour: evidence from Japan

  Externalizing Internalizing
Model 2 Model 2A Model 2 Model 2A
OR 95 % CI OR 95 % CI OR 95 % CI OR 95 % CI
Daughters (n = 865)
 Mother: abused 2.44* (1.04–5.71) 1.74 (0.68–4.45) 2.91* (1.11–7.65) 1.99 (0.69–5.74)
 Father: abused 1.30 (0.48–3.53) 1.06 (0.39–2.85) 1.68 (0.56–5.04) 1.22 (0.36–4.12)
 Mother: psychological distressb    3.39*** (1.87–6.13)    5.67*** (2.53–12.7)
 Father: psychological distress    1.47 (0.80–2.70)    1.46 (0.67–3.15)
Sons (n = 885)
 Mother: abused 2.28 (0.90–5.80) 1.83 (0.75–4.43) 2.26 (0.99–5.14) 1.95 (0.91–4.18)
 Father: abused 3.18** (1.43–7.08) 3.01** (1.36–6.67) 2.94** (1.43–6.05) 2.55* (1.21–5.40)
 Mother: psychological distress    3.18*** (1.77–5.70)    2.24*** (1.23–4.09)
 Father: psychological distress    1.29 (0.69–2.40)    1.90* (1.03–3.52)
  1. ***p < 0.001, **p < 0.01, *p < 0.05
  2. Note: aK6 scale scores ≥ 5
  3. bAll models were controlled for children’s age group (2–3 years or 4–18 years) and the respondent to the children survey (mother or not)