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Table 2 Estimated impact of parents’ childhood abuse on their psychological distressa,b

From: Gender-specific linkages of parents’ childhood physical abuse and neglect with children’s problem behaviour: evidence from Japan

  Model 1 Model 1A
OR 95 % CI OR 95 % CI
Mothers (n = 1003)
 Abused in childhood 2.96*** (1.87–4.71) 3.01*** (1.89–4.80)
 Spouse abused in childhood 1.40 (0.86–2.27) 1.36 (0.84–2.22)
 Lower educational attainment    1.24 (0.90–1.70)
 Household income poverty    1.44* (1.01–2.07)
Fathers (n = 1003)
 Abused in childhood 2.26*** (1.43–3.58) 2.19*** (1.38–3.48)
 Spouse abused in childhood 0.91 (0.54–1.53) 0.91 (0.54–1.53)
 Lower educational attainment    1.19 (0.82–1.50)
 Household income poverty    1.36 (0.97–2.06)
  1. ***p < 0.001, *p < 0.05
  2. Note: aK6 scale scores ≥ 5
  3. bAll models were controlled for children’s age group (2–3 years or 4–18 years) and the respondent of the children survey (a mother or not)