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Table 5 Multilevel analyses exploring interaction effects by sex between baseline (T0) and one year follow-up (T2)

From: Effect of a sport-for-health intervention (SmokeFree Sports) on smoking-related intentions and cognitions among 9-10 year old primary school children: a controlled trial

   Mean differencea (T2-T0: M ± SD or %) Intervention* sexb (crude model) Boysc   Girlsc
Outcome measure   Boys Girls β or RR (95 % CI) P β or RR (95 % CI) P β or RR (95 % CI) P
Smoking intentions          
 Total non-smoking intentions I 0.10 ± 1.2 0.00 ± 0.7 −0.01d (−0.21, 0.19) 0.89 n/a - n/a -
  C 0.06 ± 1.4 0.06 ± 0.9       
Cigarette refusal self-efficacy          
 Total refusal self-efficacy I 0.84 ± 3.4 0.27 ± 3.0 −0.20d(−0.78, 0.39) 0.51 n/a - n/a -
  C 0.37 ± 3.8 0.53 ± 3.7       
Attitudes towards smoking          
 Smoking is bad for health (‘definitely yes’) I 8.3 2.5 1.02e (1.00, 1.04) 0.17 n/a - n/a -
  C 10.5 6.3       
 Safe to smoke…year or two (‘definitely not’) I −0.5 −0.9 0.94e (0.76, 1.17) 0.64 n/a - n/a -
  C −2.6 3.1       
 Difficult to quit once started (‘definitely yes’) I 7.8 4.0 1.03e (0.81, 1.31) 0.84 n/a - n/a -
  C 6.2 7.1       
 Others smoke harmful to you (‘definitely yes’) I 1.6 −1.7 1.11e (0.77, 2.15) 0.41 n/a - n/a -
  C −0.9 −3.2       
 Affects sports performance (‘definitely yes’) I 25.1 21.3 1.05e (0.83, 1.32) 0.73 n/a - n/a -
  C 5.3 −2.3       
 Makes you gain or lose weight (‘no difference’) I −2.5 −1.7 0.99e (0.26, 3.70) 0.99 n/a - n/a -
  C 1.8 −8.7       
  1. Notes: β = beta coefficient; RR = relative risk; CI = confidence interval; I = intervention group; C = comparison. Where crude analyses were significant, adjusted analyses (i.e., interaction term included in adjusted multilevel models) were conducted with results for each sex shown
  2. aUnadjusted within-group mean difference (one year follow-up minus baseline)
  3. bAdjusted for group and baseline value of the outcome measure
  4. cAdditionally adjusted for school and deprivation level, sex, age, ethnicity, other individual smoking-related cognitions at baseline, enjoyment of physical activity and mother/father/sibling/friend smoking
  5. dβ value
  6. eRelative risk