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Table 4 Multilevel analyses exploring interaction effects by sex between baseline (T0) and post-intervention (T1)

From: Effect of a sport-for-health intervention (SmokeFree Sports) on smoking-related intentions and cognitions among 9-10 year old primary school children: a controlled trial

   Mean differencea (T1-T0: M ± SD or %) Intervention* sexb (crude model) Boysc   Girlsc
Outcome measure   Boys Girls β or RR (95 % CI) P β or RR (95 % CI) P β or RR (95 % CI) P
Smoking intentions          
 Total non-smoking intentions I 0.10 ± 1.2 −0.04 ± 0.7 0.10d (−0.10, 0.30) 0.32 n/a n/a -
  C 0.16 ± 1.0 0.00 ± 0.9       
Cigarette refusal self-efficacy          
 Total refusal self-efficacy I 0.32 ± 3.9 0.25 ± 3.2 0.87d (0.09, 1.64) 0.03* −0.18d (−0.77, 0.41) 0.54 0.72d (0.21, 1.23) <0.01*
  C 0.39 ± 3.6 −0.07 ± 3.8       
Attitudes towards smoking          
 Smoking is bad for health (‘definitely yes’) I 5.5 2.0 1.05e (1.00, 1.11) 0.12 n/a - n/a -
  C 4.4 0.8       
 Safe to smoke…year or two (‘definitely not’) I 0.9 5.3 1.16e (0.95, 1.42) 0.23 n/a - n/a -
  C −4.4 −5.6       
 Difficult to quit once started (‘definitely yes’) I 17.4 13.5 1.19e (0.90, 1.57) 0.30 n/a - n/a -
  C 2.6 −3.1       
 Others smoke harmful to you (‘definitely yes’) I 3.3 1.4 1.14e (0.84, 2.23) 0.29 n/a - n/a -
  C −0.9 −4.0       
 Affects sports performance (‘definitely yes’) I 30.3 30.3 1.16e (0.90, 1.50) 0.34 n/a - n/a -
  C 5.3 −3.1       
 Makes you gain or lose weight (‘no difference’) I 23.4 29.1 1.21e (0.79, 2.31) 0.36 n/a - n/a -
  C −2.6 −15.0       
  1. Notes: β = beta coefficient; RR = relative risk; CI = confidence interval; I = intervention group; C = comparison. Where crude analyses were significant, adjusted analyses (i.e., interaction term included in adjusted multilevel models) were conducted with results for each sex shown
  2. *Significant intervention effect (P < 0.05)
  3. aUnadjusted within-group mean difference (post-intervention minus baseline)
  4. bAdjusted for group and baseline value of the outcome measure
  5. cAdditionally adjusted for school and deprivation level, sex, age, ethnicity, other individual smoking-related cognitions at baseline, enjoyment of physical activity and mother/father/sibling/friend smoking
  6. dβ value
  7. eRelative risk