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Table 3 Multilevel analyses of the effectiveness of the SmokeFree Sports intervention between baseline (T0) and one year follow-up (T2)

From: Effect of a sport-for-health intervention (SmokeFree Sports) on smoking-related intentions and cognitions among 9-10 year old primary school children: a controlled trial

  Mean differencea (T2-T0: M ± SD or %) Crude modelb Adjusted modelc
Outcome measure β or RR (95 % CI) P β or RR (95 % CI) P
Smoking intentions       
 Total non-smoking intentions I 0.06 ± 0.97 0.08d (−0.02,0.18) 0.13 0.08d (−0.02,0.17) 0.14
  C 0.06 ± 1.18     
Cigarette refusal self-efficacy       
 Total refusal self-efficacy I 0.56 ± 3.23 0.27d (−0.02,0.56) 0.07 0.23d (−0.07,0.52) 0.13
  C 0.45 ± 3.73     
Attitudes towards smoking       
 Smoking is bad for health (‘definitely yes’) I 5.5 0.98e (0.96,1.01) 0.28 0.99e (0.97,1.01) 0.42
  C 8.3     
 Safe to smoke…year or two (‘definitely not’) I −0.6 1.05e (0.95,1.16) 0.42 1.03e (0.93,1.15) 0.65
  C 0.4     
 Difficult to quit once started (‘definitely yes’) I 5.8 1.15e (1.02,1.29) 0.05 1.15e (1.02,1.3) 0.06
  C 6.6     
 Others smoke is harmful to you (‘definitely yes’) I 0.0 1.14e (1.08,1.81) 0.03 1.13e (1.05,1.79) 0.05
  C −2.0     
 Affects sports performance (‘definitely yes’) I 23.2 1.55e (1.42,1.69) <0.001* 1.57e (1.43,1.72) <0.001*
  C 1.3     
 Makes you gain or lose weight (‘no difference’) I −2.0 1.05e (0.90,1.22) 0.60 0.98e (0.83,1.16) 0.84
  C −3.7     
  1. Notes: β = beta coefficient; RR = relative risk; CI = confidence interval; I = intervention group; C = comparison. Values reflect the intervention effects (i.e., between-group differences) between baseline and post-intervention
  2. *Significant intervention effect (P < 0.05)
  3. aUnadjusted within-group mean difference (one year follow-up minus baseline)
  4. bAdjusted for group and baseline value of the outcome measure
  5. cAdditionally adjusted for school and deprivation level, sex, age, ethnicity, other individual smoking-related cognitions at baseline, enjoyment of physical activity and mother/father/sibling/friend smoking
  6. dβ value
  7. eRelative risk