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Table 1 summarising country, type of CHW and service provided for included studies

From: How equitable are community health worker programmes and which programme features influence equity of community health worker services? A systematic review

Article and Country Type of CHW CHW intervention Study design and overall quality Equity Stratifier
(Atkinson & Haran, 2005); Brazil Community Health Worker Comprehensive family health programme, including CHW component (not well explained) Cross-sectional household survey; High Quality – Place of residence -
(Baqui et al., 2009); Bangladesh Community Health Worker Maternal and Neonatal health programme with CHW treatment for neonatal infections in intervention areas Cluster randomised controlled trial; High Access – Socio-economic status (SES) +
Utilisation – SES +
Utilisation – Education +
(Baqui et al., 2008); India Community Health Worker NGO facilitation of government Maternal and child health programme Controlled before and after study; High Empowerment – SES +
(Bell, Go, Miguel, Parks, & Bryan, 2005); Philippines Village health worker Malaria control and case management, community education and bednet distribution Cross-sectional household survey (including villages with and without resident VHW); Medium Access - Place of residence -
Access – Education –
Access – SES-
Utilisation – Place of residence –
Utilisation – Gender +
Utilisation – Education +
Utilisation – Social capital -
(Callaghan-Koru et al., 2013); Malawi Health Surveillance Assistant Maternal and newborn health programme, including antenatal and postnatal home visits by HSA Before and after study, with no comparison; High Access – SES -
Utilisation – SES ?
Empowerment – SES +
(Dalal et al., 2013) Kenya Counsellor Home Based Testing and Counselling Programme Longitudinal study; Medium Utilisation – Gender -
Utilisation – Age +
Utilisation – Place of residence -
(DasGupta, Mansuri, Nistha, & Vishwanath, 2007) Pakistan Lady health worker Maternal and neonatal health programme offering health and family planning services Cross-sectional study (used data from Pakistan Integrated Household Survey); Low Access – Education -
Utilisation – Gender +
Utilisation – Education +
(Fort, Grembowski, Heagerty, Lim, & Mercer, 2012) Guatemala Community Nurse Auxilliary Comprehensive family health programme Longitudinal prospective cohort; Medium Utilisation – Language +
Utilisation- Education ?
Utilisation – Place of residence -
Utilisation – risk +
Utilisation – SES +
Utilisation – Age
Utilisation – Religion –
Utilisation – Family type –
Utilisation – Occupation +
Quality – Age -
Quality – Language +
Quality – Education +
(Fylkesnes et al., 2013); Zambia Counsellor Home Based Testing and Counselling programme Cluster randomised controlled trial; High Utilisation – Education +
Utilisation – Gender +
Utilisation – Age +
(Hasegawa, Yasuoka, Ly, Nguon, & Jimba, 2013); Cambodia Village malaria worker Child health programme providing malaria case management and child health services Cross-sectional study; High Utilisation – Place of residence +
(- those over 25 km away)
Utilisation – SES +
Utilisation – Education +
Utilisation – Age +
Utilisation – Occupation +
(Helleringer, Kohler, Frimpong, & Mkandawire, 2009); Malawi Counsellor Home Based Testing and Counselling survey Cross-sectional study; Medium Utilisation – SES +
Utilisation – Age +
Utilisation – Gender -
Utilisation – Marital status -
Utilisation – Education -
(Hossain, Khuda, & Phillips, 2004) Bangladesh Female Welfare Assistant Family Planning programme Retrospective re-analysis of longitudinal data; Low Access – Place of residence – Quality-
(Kamiya, Yoshimura, & Islam, 2013) Bangladesh Family Welfare Volunteer Maternal and neonatal health programme, including community mobilisation through community support groups Controlled, non-randomised before and after study; High Utilisation - SES + (non CHW-)
Self Help Group
(Katabarwa et al., 2010); Uganda Community distributors Onchocerciasis control using kinship enhanced delivery model Controlled cross-sectional study (kinship vs non-kinship); High Access – Social capital -
Quality – Social capital –
Empowerment – Social capital +
(Kisia et al., 2012) Kenya Community Health Worker Malaria case management for children under 5 years Before and after study, no comparison; High Utilisation – SES +
Utilisation – Education +
Utilisation – Village size -
Utilisation – Age +
Utilisation – Household size +
(Littrell, Moukam, Libite, Youmba, & Baugh, 2013) Cameroon Community Health Worker Community Case Management for children under 5 years Quasi-experimental study, with comparison group; High Utilisation – SES +
(Matovu et al., 2005); Uganda Counsellor Home Based Testing and Counselling survey Cross-sectional survey; Medium Utilisation – Age +
Utilisation – Education +
Utilisation - Gender +
Utilisation – Marital status +
(Anthony K Mbonye, Bygbjerg, & Magnussen, 2007); Ugandaa Mixed Intermittent presumptive treatment malaria in pregnancy provided by a range of community based providers Before after with comparison Utilisation – Age
Qualitative study; High Utilisation – Place of residence
Utilisation – Education +
(A K Mbonye, Schultz Hansen, Bygbjerg, & Magnussen, 2008) Uganda a Mixed Intermittent presumptive treatment malaria in pregnancy Before after with comparison; Medium Utilisation – Age -
Utilisation – Education +
Utilisation – Occupation +
Utilisation – Place of residence +
Utilisation – Marital status +
(Mukanga et al., 2012); Uganda Community Health Worker Community Case Management for pneumonia and fever Cross-sectional survey; High Access – Place of residence +
Utilisation – Place of residence +
Utilisation - Education - +
Utilisation – SES +
Utilisation – Occupation +
(Mulogo, Abdulaziz, Guerra, & Baine, 2011) Uganda Counsellor Home Based Testing and Counselling Longitudinal study with cross sectional and investigative phases; High Utilisation – Gender –
Utilisation – Education +
Utilisation – Place of residence +
Utilisation – Marital status –
Utilisation – SES -
(Mumtaz et al., 2013); Pakistan Lady health worker Maternal and child health programme providing door step family planning, antenatal and child health services Cross-sectional study Access – Social capital -
Qualitative study; High Access – SES +
Quality – Social capital -
(Mutale, Michelo, Jürgensen, & Fylkesnes, 2010) Zambia Counsellor Home Based Testing and Counselling Cross-sectional study; Medium Utilisation – Place of residence +
Utilisation – Gender +
Utilisation – Education +
Access – Age +
(Naik, Tabana, Doherty, Zembe, & Jackson, 2012); South Africa Counsellor Home Based Testing and Counselling Cluster randomised trial with comparison, comparing home based HTC with facility based; High Utilisation – Gender -
Utilisation – Age +
(Nsungwa-Sabiiti et al., 2007); Uganda Drug distributor Malaria case management and malaria counselling Quasi-experimental before after study with comparison group; Medium Utilisation – SES -
Utilisation –Gender +
Utilisation – Education +
(Onwujekwe, Ojukwu, Shu, & Uzochukwu, 2007) Nigeria Community Health Worker Malaria case management Before after study, no comparison; Medium Access – SES –
Access – Number household residents –
Access – Age -
Utilisation – SES -
Quality – SES -
(Perry, King-Schultz, Aftab, & Bryant, 2007); Haiti Animatrice General health programme involving household peer to peer education Cross-sectional study Access – Place of residence –
Matrons Exit interview; Low
Health Agents
Monitrices
(Quayyum et al., 2013); Bangladesh Shasthaya Shebika Shasthya Kormi Maternal and neonatal health programme providing maternal health services and education at home Quasi-experimental, before after study with comparison area; High Utilisation – SES + (non CHW +/-)
Newborn Health workers
(Quinley & Govindasamy, 2007); Nepal Female Community Health Volunteer Child health (no details provided) Cross-sectional study (additional analysis of Demographic Health Survey data); Low Utilisation – SES -
Utilisation – Place of residence +
(Siekmans et al., 2013); Kenya Community Health Worker Malaria case management for under fives Before after study, no comparison area; High Access – SES +
Utilisation – SES +
Empowerment – SES +
(D. O. Simba, 2005) Tanzania b Community based distributor Family Planning provision of contraceptives and information of sexual and reproductive health Descriptive cross-sectional study; Medium Utilisation – Age -
Utilisation – Occupation +
Utilisation - Gender +
Utilisation – Religion +
Utilisation – SES +
Quality – SES –
Empowerment – SES +
(D. Simba, Schuemer, Forrester, & Hiza, 2011); Tanzaniab Community Based Agent Family Planning provision of contraceptives and information of sexual and reproductive health Cross-sectional descriptive study; Low Utilisation – Place of residence +
Quality – SES +
(Wolff et al., 2005) Uganda Counsellor Home Based Testing and Counselling Repeated cross-sectional study Utilisation – Age +
Qualitative study; Medium Utilisation – Gender +
(Wringe et al., 2008); Tanzania Counsellor Voluntary Counselling and Testing offered at purpose built hut following household questionnaire Repeated cross-sectional study; High Utilisation – Gender -
Utilisation – Education -
Utilisation – Religion -
Utilisation – Race -
Utilisation – Place of residence –
Utilisation – Age -
  1. Note + pro equity, - anti equity, ? mixed equity findings
  2. aIndicates two papers based on the same study
  3. bIndicates two papers based on the same study