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Table 3 Health beliefs of mothers about preventing cervical cancer in their daughters and the Pap test (total N = 1581; missing values excluded)

From: The health beliefs of mothers about preventing cervical cancer and their intention to recommend the Pap test to their daughters: a cross-sectional survey

Health beliefs related to my daughter Strongly agree (1) Agree (2) Disagree (3) Strongly disagree (4)  
  n (%) mean ± SD
Cervical cancer may lead to my daughter’s death 267 (17.0) 965 (61.4) 308 (19.6) 32 (2.0) 2.07 ± 0.67
Cervical cancer may lead to my daughter having a hysterectomy 258 (16.4) 1076 (68.6) 213 (13.6) 22 (1.4) 2.00 ± 0.60
Cervical cancer is a serious health problem for my daughter 294 (18.7) 1044 (66.5) 210 (13.4) 23 (1.5) 1.98 ± 0.62
Cervical cancer can lead to my daughter needing to receive chemotherapy or radiotherapy treatment 225 (14.4) 1113 (71.3) 212 (13.6) 12 (0.8) 2.01 ± 0.56
My daughter would be at risk of developing cervical cancer 106 (6.7) 989 (62.8) 434 (27.5) 47 (3.0) 2.27 ± 0.62
If my daughter has cervical cancer, she could die 160 (10.1) 956 (60.6) 439 (27.8) 23 (1.5) 2.21 ± 0.63
Cervical cancer is one of the most common cancers in women 161 (10.2) 982 (62.2) 416 (26.3) 20 (1.3) 2.19 ± 0.62
 Subtotal: Risks of cervical cancer (7 items) 14.71 ± 2.97
My daughter would not have time to undergo the Pap test 37 (2.4) 346 (22.2) 950 (60.9) 227 (14.6) 2.88 ± 0.67
My daughter would not undergo the Pap test because she would not be treated in a health-care center 31 (2.0) 231 (14.9) 964 (62.3) 322 (20.8) 3.02 ± 0.66
My daughter would not undergo the Pap test because she would need to wait a long time to be seen 49 (3.2) 283 (18.4) 929 (60.4) 277 (18.0) 2.93 ± 0.70
My daughter would not undergo the Pap test because she would be afraid to find out if she has a cancer 62 (4.0) 332 (21.2) 949 (60.6) 222 (14.2) 2.85 ± 0.70
My daughter would not undergo the Pap test because the health-care center would only be open when she is not available 22 (1.4) 122 (7.8) 942 (60.4) 474 (30.4) 3.20 ± 0.63
My daughter would not undergo the Pap test because she would be too embarrassed to have a genital exam 88 (5.7) 493 (31.7) 801 (51.5) 172 (11.1) 2.68 ± 0.74
My daughter would not undergo the Pap test because it would be difficult to get an appointment 32 (2.1) 233 (15.0) 955 (61.5) 332 (21.4) 3.02 ± 0.67
 Subtotal: Barriers to the Pap test (7 items)      20.57 ± 3.22
My daughter would undergo the Pap test if advised by a nurse or midwife 50 (3.2) 650 (41.8) 777 (49.9) 79 (5.1) 2.57 ± 0.64
My daughter would undergo the Pap test if advised by a doctor 131 (8.4) 845 (54.0) 523 (33.4) 65 (4.2) 2.33 ± 0.69
My daughter would undergo the Pap test if I would speak to her about it 99 (6.4) 577 (37.1) 786 (50.6) 92 (5.9) 2.56 ± 0.70
My daughter would undergo the Pap test if a friend or neighbor would speak to her about it 109 (7.0) 811 (51.9) 603 (38.6) 41 (2.6) 2.37 ± 0.65
My daughter would undergo the Pap test if members of my family would advise her to do it 76 (4.9) 718 (46.2) 685 (44.1) 74 (4.8) 2.49 ± 0.67
My daughter would undergo the Pap test if she heard or read something in the newspaper or in a television or radio program 143 (9.1) 949 (60.6) 438 (28.0) 36 (2.3) 2.23 ± 0.64
 Subtotal: External pressures to undergo the Pap test (6 items) 14.55 ± 2.94
My daughter does not know at what age it would be necessary to first undergo the Pap test 129 (8.3) 820 (52.8) 506 (32.6) 97 (6.3) 2.37 ± 0.72
My daughter does not know how often she would need to undergo the Pap test 127 (8.1) 783 (49.8) 556 (35.4) 106 (6.7) 2.40 ± 0.73
 Subtotal: Awareness of the Pap test (2 items) 4.77 ± 1.24
Getting the Pap test would not make my daughter feel good because it does not means that she would take care of her health 298 (19.0) 1090 (69.3) 176 (11.2) 8 (0.5) 1.93 ± 0.56
The Pap test could not save my daughter’s life 325 (20.7) 1045 (66.6) 175 (11.2) 24 (1.5) 1.94 ± 0.61
The Pap test would not influence my daughter’s health 473 (29.9) 1055 (66.7) 50 (3.2) 3 (0.2) 1.74 ± 0.52
 Subtotal: Benefits of the Pap test (3 items) 5.61 ± 1.33
If my daughter has no symptoms, she would not need the Pap test 42 (2.7) 263 (16.6) 1092 (69.1) 184 (11.6) 2.90 ± 0.62
If my daughter does not have a child, she would not need the Pap test 18 (1.1) 158 (10.0) 1175 (74.5) 227 (14.4) 3.02 ± 0.54
If my daughter does not have intercourse, she would not need the Pap test 29 (1.8) 204 (13.0) 1117 (70.9) 225 (14.3) 2.98 ± 0.59
 Subtotal: Necessity of the Pap test (3 items) 8.90 ± 1.53
 Total 28 items 69.08 ± 7.15