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Table 3 Association between parental smoking during pregnancy and risk of asthma at any time among offspring

From: Parental smoking and cessation during pregnancy and the risk of childhood asthma

Maternal and paternalsmoking No asthma N = 36665 Asthma N = 2641 Asthma Prevalence (%) OR 95%CI p-value aOR*95%CI p-value**
No maternal smoking
Paternal non-smokera 18828 (51.4) 1307 (49.5) 6.5 1   1  
Paternal recent quitterb 2362 (6.4) 124 (4.7) 5.0 0.76 (0.6-0.9) 0.004 0.35 (0.3-0.4) <0.001
Paternal smoking 4463 (12.2) 370 (14.0) 7.7 1.19 (1.1-1.3) 0.004 2.87 (2.5-3.3) <.0.001
Maternal recent quitterb
Paternal non-smokera 1271 (3.5) 98 (3.7) 7.2 1.11 (0.9-1.4) 0.334 1.17 (0.9-1.5) 0.182
Paternal recent quitterb 1278 (3.5) 68 (2.6) 5.1 0.77 (0.6-1.0) 0.337 0.41 (0.3-0.5) <0.001
Paternal smoking 1966 (5.4) 176 (6.7) 8.2 1.29 (1.1-1.5) 0.002 2.81 (2.3-3.4) <0.001
Maternal smoking
Paternal non-smokera 776 (2.1) 65 (2.5) 7.7 1.21 (0.9-1.6) 0.156 1.65 (1.2-2.2) 0.001
Paternal recent quitterb 883 (2.4) 43 (1.6) 4.6 0.70 (0.5-1.0) 0.026 0.30 (0.2-0.4) <0.001
Paternal smoking 2378 (6.5) 234 (8.9) 9.0 1.42 (1.2-1.6) <0.001 3.74 (3.2-4.4) <0.001
Missing data 2460 (6.7) 156 (5.9) 6.0     
  1. aNo smoking before or during pregnancy
  2. bQuit smoking prior to or during pregnancy
  3. *Adjusted for the following maternal factors at birth: asthma, age, parity, pre-pregnancy BMI, ART, and marital status, plus gender of child, gestational weeks at birth, mode of delivery and age of asthma or among controls follow-up time
  4. **p-value for adjusted analysis obtained from the trend (Wald) in logistic regression model