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Table 1 Measures of IPV and potential community-, relationship- and individual-level mediators of intervention effect on IPV

From: Ecological pathways to prevention: How does the SASA! community mobilisation model work to prevent physical intimate partner violence against women?

Concept being measured Indicator Items in composite index
IPV OUTCOMES (among women/men who have had a regular/casual partner in the past year)
Women’s experience of IPV Women’s past year experience of physical IPV Reports that her partner/most recent partner has done at least one of the following things to her in the past year:
• Slapped her or thrown something at her that could hurt her
• Pushed her or shoved her or pulled her hair
• Hit her with his fist or something else that could hurt her
• Kicked her, dragged her or beat her up
• Choked or burnt her on purpose
• Threatened to use or actually used a gun, knife or other weapon against her
• Threatened to use or actually used a panga (stick) against her
Men’s perpetration of IPV Men’s past year perpetration of IPV Fills in anonymous card that ‘yes’ he has ‘used violence on your (partner) [most recent partner] in the last 12 months (last 12 months of your most recent relationship).’ a
MEDIATORS   
Community-level mediators (EA-level** aggregate prevalence)
Community responses to prevent violence Okay for others in community to intervene if they know IPV is occurring Among all respondents in EA, percentage who answers ‘yes’ to the question: ‘If a husband beats up his wife, should others outside the couple intervene?’
People who have witnessed/heard violence who have responded appropriately (among those who have seen or heard IPV in their community) Among respondents in EA who had seen or heard IPV happening in their community, percentage who reported that:
• ‘Yes’ they ‘did something to try to help’
AND reported doing so with at least one of the following responses:
• Gathered other people in the community to help
• Knocked on the door to stop/distract the couple from fighting
• Separated the couple that was fighting
• Informed a community activist, ssenga, LC or police or any other authority
• Talked to the woman afterwards and told her to talk to a family member, friend, community activist, LC or ssenga or any other authority
• Talked to the woman afterwards and asked her how she wanted to be helped
• Talked to the man afterwards and told him that violence is never acceptable
• Talked to the man afterwards and told him to talk to a family member, friend, community activist, LC or ssenga or any other authority
• Talked to the man afterwards and tried to help him stop using violence
Norms around violence Acceptable for a man to use violence against his partner Among all respondents in EA, percentage who answer that ‘yes’, a man has good reason to hit his wife in at least one of the following scenarios:
• She disobeys him
• She answers back to him
• She disrespects his relatives
• He suspects that she is unfaithful
• He finds out she has been unfaithful
• She spends time gossiping with neighbours
• She neglects taking care of the children
• She doesn’t complete her household work to his satisfaction
• She refuses to have sex with him
• She accuses him of infidelity
• She tells his secrets to others in the community
• He is angry with her
Norms around women’s control over sex Acceptable for a woman to refuse sex with her partner Among all respondents in EA, percentage who answer that ‘yes’ in their opinion it is acceptable if a married woman refuses to have sex with her husband if she doesn’t feel like it.
Okay for a woman to ask her husband to use a condom Among all respondents in EA, percentage who answer that ‘yes’ it is acceptable for a married woman to ask her husband to use a condom.
Broader gender norms Others in community would respect a man who made decisions jointly with his wife Among all respondents in EA, percentage who answer that ‘yes’, if a husband told his friends that he makes decisions jointly with his wife, his friends would respect him.
Man’s role to decide if his wife can work Among all respondents in EA, percentage who answer that ‘yes’ they think it is a husband’s role to decide whether or not his wife can work outside the home.
Relationship level mediators (for those partnered in past year)
Communication Discuss things that happen in day Answers ‘yes’ in the last 12 months they and their partner discuss things that happen to the respondent during the day, AND things that happen to their partner during the day.
Discuss worries Answers ‘yes’ in the last 12 months they and their partner discuss the respondent’s worried or feelings.
Discuss what you both like during sex Answers ‘yes’ that over the last 12 months they have openly asked their partner about what he/she likes during sex, AND that they have openly told their partner about what they themselves like during sex.
Appreciate work partner does around house (where applicable) Answers ‘many times’ (versus ‘none’ or ‘a few’) to the question of how many times they have shown appreciation for the work their partner does inside the home.
Appreciate work partner does outside house (where applicable) Answers ‘many times’ (versus ‘none’ or ‘a few’) to the question of how many times they have shown appreciation for the work their partner does outside the home.
Power dynamics Joint decision making Answers that ‘most of the time’ or ‘all of the time’ in the last 12 months they have made decisions jointly with their partner on important issues, such as where they stay/live or what school the children attend
Man helps around house (among cohabiting couples) Answers that ‘yes’ in the last 12 months the male partner/male respondent has regularly helped with any of the housework.
Woman refused a job because husband doesn’t want her to work Answer that ‘yes’ in the last 12 months the female respondent/female partner has given up or refused a job for money outside the home because her partner did not want her to work.
Woman participated in deciding how household finances spent (among cohabiting couples) Female respondent answers that ‘yes’ in the last 12 months she has participated in deciding how the family finances were spent.
Male respondent answers that ‘no’ in the last 12 months he hasn’t made all decisions regarding how the family finances were spent independent of his wife.
Additional sex partners Concurrent partners (among non-polygamous partnered respondents) Answers that ‘yes’ they have had a sexual relationship with any other person in the last 12 months while being with their partner.
Male partner often suspicious that female partner is unfaithful Reports that ‘yes’ in the last 12 months the male partner/male respondent has often been suspicious that the female respondent/female partner is unfaithful.
Relationship dissolution Separated/divorced in past year (among those who have been married, lived together with someone as if married, or had a regular partner at some point in the last 12 months) Among those who have been married or in a relationship at some point in the past year, those who report being currently ‘separated’, ‘divorced’ or ‘single’.
Individuals (for all respondents, separately for men and women)
Attitudes around violence Acceptable for a man to use violence against his partner Answers ‘yes’, a man has good reason to hit his wife in at least one of the following scenarios:
• She disobeys him
• She answers back to him
• She disrespects his relatives
• He suspects that she is unfaithful
• He finds out she has been unfaithful
• She spends time gossiping with neighbours
• She neglects taking care of the children
• She doesn’t complete her household work to his satisfaction
• She refuses to have sex with him
• She accuses him of infidelity
• She tells his secrets to others in the community
• He is angry with her
Okay for a woman to tell others if she is experiencing violence Answers that ‘yes’, if a married woman has been beaten up by her husband, it is okay for her to tell others.
Attitudes towards women’s control over sex Acceptable for a woman to refuse sex with her partner Answers that ‘yes’ in their opinion it is acceptable if a married woman refuses to have sex with her husband if she doesn’t feel like it.
Okay for a woman to ask her husband to use a condom Answers that ‘yes’ it is acceptable for a married woman to ask her husband to use a condom.
Broader gender attitudes Others in community would respect a man who made decisions jointly with his wife Answers that ‘yes’, if a husband told his friends that he makes decisions jointly with his wife, his friends would respect him.
Man’s role to decide if his wife can work Answers that ‘yes’ they think it is a husband’s role to decide whether or not his wife can work outside the home.
Behaviours Drunk at least once a month Answers that in the last 12 months they have been drunk ‘most days’, ‘weekly’ or ‘once a month’ (versus ‘never’ or ‘less than once a month’)
Woman experiencing (man perpetrating) violence who has told someone (among those experiencing/perpetrating IPV) Among respondents who report IPV experience (women)/perpetration (men), those who report that ‘yes’ they have told someone about any of their experiences.
  1. a Male disclosure of IPV perpetration in the main questionnaire was extremely low, especially in intervention communities. Therefore, for the purpose of this analysis, when looking at pathways to reduced male perpetration, we have instead used violence data from cards that respondents were asked to fill out anonymously and place in a sealed envelope at the end of the interview
  2. **EA = census enumeration area