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Table 3 Factors associated with prevalence of hypertension, awareness, treatment and control among treated hypertensive participants

From: Prevalence, awareness, treatment, control and socio demographic determinants of hypertension in Malaysian adults

Risk Factors Hypertension Awareness among hypertensive participants Treatment among hypertensive participants Control among treated participants
CPR (CI) APR† (CI) CPR (CI) APR† (CI) CPR (CI) APR† (CI) CPR (CI) APR† (CI)
Location
 Urban 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00
 Rural 1.14 (1.08–1.20)** 1.12 (1.04–1.20)* 0.97 (0.9–1.04) 1.03 (0.94–1.13) 0.83 (0.76–0.90)** 0.95 (0.85–1.06) 0.66 (0.56–0.78)** 0.61 (0.49–0.75)**
Gender
 Male 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00
 Female 0.90 (0.85–0.95)** 0.88 (0.83–0.94)** 1.14 (1.06–1.23)* 1.19 (1.08–1.31)** 1.12 (1.02–1.22)* 1.13 (1.01–1.26)* 1.02 (0.87–1.2) 1.25 (1.01–1.54)*
Age (years)
 30–39 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00
 40–49 1.86 (1.62–2.14)** 1.71 (1.48–1.98)** 1.36 (1.08–1.71)* 1.30 (1.03–1.65)* 1.51 (1.11–2.05)* 1.50 (1.09–2.07)* 0.92 (0.55–1.53) 0.92 (0.54–1.55)
 50–59 2.70 (2.35–3.09)** 2.37 (2.06–2.74)** 1.51 (1.2–1.89)** 1.45 (1.15–1.83)* 2.00 (1.48–2.69)** 1.98 (1.45–2.70)** 0.86 (0.53–1.41) 0.85 (0.51–1.42)
 ≥60 3.56 (3.12–4.08)** 3.17 (2.74–3.67)** 1.65 (1.32–2.06)** 1.63 (1.29–2.06)** 2.27 (1.69–3.05)** 2.36 (1.73–3.24)** 0.77 (0.47–1.25) 0.77 (0.46–1.31)
Ethnicity
 Malay 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00
 Chinese 0.99 (0.9–1.08) 1.12 (1.01–1.24)* 0.94 (0.83–1.06) 1.01 (0.88–1.16) 1.08 (0.94–1.24) 1.13 (0.97–1.32) 1.10 (0.87–1.40) 0.90 (0.69–1.18)
 Indian 0.93 (0.79–1.1) 1.04 (0.87–1.24) 0.92 (0.73–1.16) 0.95 (0.74–1.22) 1.00 (0.77–1.30) 1.00 (0.76–1.33) 1.56 (1.06–2.29)* 1.35 (0.89–2.04)
 Indigenous groups 0.97 (0.9–1.05) 1.04 (0.95–1.14) 0.72 (0.64–0.82)** 0.80 (0.69–0.92)* 0.53 (0.45–0.63)** 0.66 (0.55–0.79)** 1.20 (0.91–1.59) 1.64 (1.19–2.25)*
Education attainment
 No formal education 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00
 Primary 1.03 (0.94–1.11) 1.00 (0.92–1.1) 1.14 (1.02–1.27)* 1.09 (0.96–1.22) 1.27 (1.11–1.46)* 1.15 (1.00–1.33) 0.89 (0.69–1.15) 1.03 (0.78–1.35)
 Secondary 0.79 (0.73–0.85)** 0.94 (0.85–1.03) 0.99 (0.88–1.11) 0.99 (0.86–1.12) 1.11 (0.96–1.27) 1.05 (0.9–1.23) 1.06 (0.83–1.37) 1.03 (0.77–1.38)
 Tertiary 0.68 (0.62–0.75)** 0.86 (0.76–0.96)* 1.02 (0.89–1.16) 1.05 (0.89–1.23) 1.13 (0.96–1.33) 1.07 (0.89–1.3) 1.46 (1.11–1.93)* 1.30 (0.94–1.81)
Smoking status
 Never smoke 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00
 Current smoker 0.86 (0.78–0.93)** 0.81 (0.73–0.89)** 0.90 (0.79–1.02) 0.99 (0.86–1.14) 0.77 (0.66–0.90)* 0.84 (0.7–1.00) 0.96 (0.72–1.28) 1.11 (0.79–1.55)
 Ex-smoker 1.18 (1.09–1.27)** 1.00 (0.91–1.09) 1.03 (0.93–1.15) 1.12 (0.98–1.26) 1.00 (0.88–1.14) 1.04 (0.9–1.21) 1.13 (0.91–1.41) 1.28 (0.99–1.67)
Body Mass Index
 Normal 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00
 Underweight 0.80 (0.66–0.96)* 0.72 (0.59–0.89)* 0.79 (0.58–1.08) 0.77 (0.56–1.08) 0.67 (0.44–1.01) 0.69 (0.45–1.07) 0.91 (0.42–1.95) 1.31 (0.6–2.87)
 Overweight 1.24 (1.15–1.34)** 1.31 (1.2–1.42)** 1.08 (0.97–1.21) 1.10 (0.98–1.24) 1.20 (1.04–1.37)* 1.19 (1.03–1.38)* 0.98 (0.77–1.25) 0.95 (0.74–1.23)
 Obese 1.54 (1.43–1.66)** 1.71 (1.58–1.86)** 1.28 (1.15–1.42)** 1.30 (1.16–1.46)** 1.48 (1.3–1.69)** 1.51 (1.31–1.74)** 0.90 (0.72–1.14) 0.88 (0.68–1.13)
  1. †Modified Poisson regression model
  2. CPR: Crude prevalence ratio, APR: Adjusted prevalence ratio, CI: 95 % confidence interval
  3. *significant at p < 0.05; **significant at p < 0.001