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Table 2 The overall prevalence, awareness, treatment and control of hypertension according to selected population characteristics

From: Prevalence, awareness, treatment, control and socio demographic determinants of hypertension in Malaysian adults

  Hypertension Awareness among hypertensive participants Treatment among hypertensive participants Treatment among hypertensive participants who were aware Control among hypertensive participants Control among hypertensive participants who were aware Control among treated participants
N=5409 N=2837 N=2022 N= 2022 N=861 N=861 N=621
Prevalence (95% Confidence Interval)
Overall 47.9 (47.0- 49.0) 53.2 (51.9-54.5) 38.2 (36.9 -39.5) 72.3 (70.6 – 73.9) 15.9 (14.9-16.9) 30.3 (28.7 – 32.0) 30.7 (28.7 -32.7)
Location
 Urban 44.9 (43.6 – 46.2) 54.1 (52.2 – 56.1) 42.0 (40.1 – 43.9) 78.4 (76.2 – 80.6) 18.9 (17.4 – 20.4) 35.6 (33.1 – 38.1) 36.5 (33.7 – 39.4)
 Rural 51.2 (49.8 – 52.4) 52.3 (50.5 – 54.2) 34.7 (32.9 – 36.4) 66.4 (63.9 – 68.8) 13.1 (11.8 – 14.4) 25.2 (22.9 – 27.5) 24.2 (21.4 – 26.9)
 P-value < 0.001* 0.190 <0.001* <0.001* <0.001* < 0.001* <0.001*
Gender
 Male 50.9 (49.5 – 52.3) 49.5 (47.6 – 51.5) 35.9 (34.0 – 37.8) 73.0 (70.5 – 75.5) 14.2 (12.8 – 15.5) 29.0 (26.5 – 31.6) 30.4 (27.3 – 33.4)
 Female 45.6 (44.3 – 46.8) 56.4 (54.6 -58.2) 40.2 (38.4 – 42.0) 71.7 (69.5 – 73.9) 17.4 (16.1 – 18.8) 31.3 (29.1 – 33.6) 31.0 (28.3 – 33.7)
 P-value <0.001* <0.001* 0.001* 0.428 0.001 * 0.185 0.757
Age (years)
 30-39 19.1 (16.9 – 21.3) 35.3 (29.2 – 41.4) 19.6 (14.5 – 24.7) 55.4 (44.7 – 66.2) 13.1 (8.8 – 17.5) 37.3 (26.9 – 47.8) 37.0 (22.8 – 51.1)
 40-49 35.7 (34.0 – 37.3) 48.0 (45.1 – 50.9) 29.5 (26.9 – 32.1) 61.8 (57.8 – 65.9) 17.1 (14.9 – 19.2) 36.0 (32.0 – 40.0) 33.9 (28.9 – 38.9)
 50-59 51.6 (49.9 – 53.2) 53.2 (50.9 – 55.5) 39.1 (36.9 – 41.4) 74.1 (71.3 – 76.8) 16.2 (14.5 – 17.9) 30.7 (27.8 – 33.6) 31.9 (28.5 – 35.3)
 ≥ 60 68.2 (66.6 – 69.8) 58.1 (56.1 – 60.3) 44.4 (42.3 – 46.6) 76.8 (74.4 – 79.2) 15.4 (13.8 – 16.9) 26.9 (24.5 – 29.5) 28.3 (25.3 – 31.2)
 P-value < 0.001* < 0.001* < 0.001* <0.001* 0.373 0.001* 0.137
Ethnic Group
 Malays 48.3 (47.2 – 49.3) 55.8 (54.2 -57.3) 40.4 (38.9 – 42.0) 73.0 (71.2 – 74.9) 16.1 (15.0 -17.3) 29.3 (27.4 – 31.3) 29.4 (27.2 -31.7)
 Chinese 47.5 (44.7 – 50.3) 52.3 (48.2 – 56.4) 43.6 (39.5 – 47.7) 83.4 (79.2 – 87.7) 16.3 (13.3 – 19.3) 31.8 (26.4 – 37.1) 32.4 (26.5 – 38.2)
 Indians 44.9 (39.6 – 50.4) 51.4 (43.2 – 59.5) 40.4 (32.4 – 48.4) 78.7 (69.3 – 88.0) 21.8 (15.1 – 28.5) 42.7 (31.4 – 53.9) 45.8 (32.9 – 58.6)
 Indigenous 47.0 (44.5 – 49.5) 40.4 (36.8 – 44.0) 21.6 (18.6 – 24.6) 53.6 (47.9 – 59.3) 13.2 (10.8 – 15.7) 33.2 (27.8 – 38.6) 35.3 (27.7 – 42.8)
P-value 0.546 <0.001* <0.001* <0.001* 0.048* 0.050 0.025*
Education attainment
 No formal education 57.3 (54.9 – 59.8) 51.2 (48.0 – 54.5) 33.6 (30.4 – 36.7) 65.6 (61.3 -70.0) 14.3 (11.8 – 16.3) 27.5 (23.4 – 31.5) 29.0 (23.9 – 34.1)
 Primary 58.7 (56.9 – 60.6) 58.2 (55.8 – 60.6) 42.7 (40.3 – 45.1) 73.7 (70.9 – 76.6) 14.7 (13.0 – 16.4) 25.3 (22.5 – 28.1) 25.9 (22.6 – 29.1)
 Secondary 45.1 (43.5 – 46.6) 50.7 (48.3 – 53.0) 37.1 (34.8 – 39.4) 73.8 (70.9 – 76.7) 16.2 (14.5 – 17.9) 32.1 (29.1 – 35.2) 30.8 (27.3 – 34.4)
 Tertiary 39.1 (36.9 – 41.2) 52.1 (48.6 – 55.7) 38.0 (34.5 – 41.4) 73.0 (68.6 -77.4) 21.2 (18.3 -24.1) 40.8 (36.0 – 45.6) 42.5 (36.8 – 48.1)
 P-value <0.001* <0.001* <0.001* 0.007* <0.001* < 0.001* <0.001*
Smoking status
 Never smoke 49.5 (48.4 – 50.6) 53.5 (52.0 – 55.1) 39.2 (37.6 – 40.7) 73.7 (71.8 – 75.6) 16.0 (14.8 – 17.1) 29.9 (28.0 – 31.9) 30.1 (27.8 – 32.4)
 Current smoker 42.3 (39.7 – 45.0) 48.0 (43.9 – 52.1) 30.1 (26.4 – 33.9) 63.1 (57.4 - 68.9) 14.0 (11.2 – 16.8) 29.2 (23.9 – 34.6) 28.9 (22.1 – 35.7)
 Ex-smoker 58.3 (55.5 – 61.0) 55.3 (51.6 – 58.9) 39.2 (35.6 – 42.8) 71.1 (66.6 -75.6) 17.7 (14.9 – 20.5) 32.1 (27.4 – 36.7) 34.2 (28.6 – 39.8)
P-value <0.001* 0.022* <0.001* <0.001* 0.199 0.656 0.356
Body Mass Index
 Normal 39.3 (37.4 – 41.2) 46.7 (43.5 – 49.8) 30.2 (27.3 – 33.1) 65.1 (60.6 -69.5) 15.0 (12.8 – 17.3) 32.7 (28.3 – 37.0) 32.2 (26.8 – 37.6)
 Underweight  31.4 (26.8 – 36.0) 37.0 (28.3 – 45.7) 20.2 (12.9 – 27.4) 54.4 (39.7 -69.4) 11.4 (5.7 – 17.0) 31.8 (17.9 – 45.7) 29.2 (10.6 – 47.8)
 Overweight 48.6 (47.1 – 50.1) 50.4 (48.3 – 52.7) 36.1 (34.0 – 38.2) 72.1 (69.3 – 74.9) 15.8 (14.2 – 17.4) 31.8 (28.9 – 34.7) 31.6 (28.2 – 35.0)
 Obese  60.6 (59.0 – 62.2) 59.5 (57.4 – 61.6) 44.6 (42.6 – 46.8) 75.4 (73.0 – 77.7) 16.4 (14.8 – 17.9) 27.8 (25.4 – 30.2) 29.1 (26.2 – 31.9)
P-value < 0.001* < 0.001* < 0.001* < 0.001* 0.426 0.108 0.627
  1. * significant at p < 0.05