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Table 1 Sample characteristics and bivariable analysis in the German Health Update (2012)

From: Factors associated with secondhand smoke exposure in different settings: Results from the German Health Update (GEDA) 2012

  Sample characteristicsa SHS exposurea  
n (%)
n (%) Never Low High p-value*
(1–3 days per week) (4+ days per week)
Sex
 Male 6,424 (46.1) 4,251 (66.2) 1,126 (17.5) 1,047 (16.3) <0.001
 Female 7,509 (53.9) 5,880 (78.3) 869 (11.6) 760 (10.1)
Age
 18–29 years 2,038 (14.6) 852 (41.8) 624 (30.6) 562 (27.6) <0.001
 30–44 years 3,023 (21.7) 1,991 (65.9) 510 (16.9) 522 (17.3)
 45–64 years 4,692 (33.7) 3,498 (74.6) 615 (13.1) 579 (12.3)
  + 65 years 4,180 (30.0) 3,790 (90.7) 246 (5.9) 144 (3.4)
Socioeconomic status
 Low 2,792 (20.1) 1,974 (70.7) 322 (11.5) 496 (17.8) <0.001
 Middle 8,114 (58.3) 5,779 (71.2) 1,225 (15.1) 1,110 (13.7)
 High 3,003 (21.6) 2,362 (78.7) 444 (14.8) 197 (6.6)
Educational status
 Low 2,808 (20.2) 2,027 (72.2) 314 (11.2) 467 (16.6) <0.001
 Middle 7,430 (53.4) 5,177 (69.7) 1,166 (15.7) 1,087 (14.6)
 High 3,671 (26.4) 2.912 (79.3) 510 (13.9) 249 (6.8)
Migrant background
 Yes 308 (2.6) 165 (53.6) 60 (19.5) 83 (26.9) <0.001
 No 11,521 (97.4) 8,335 (72.3) 1,717 (14.9) 1,469 (12.8)
Place of residence
 Urban 9,451 (67.8) 6,816 (72.1) 1,375 (14.5) 1,260 (13.3) 0.064
 Rural 4,482 (32.2) 3,315 (74.0) 620 (13.8) 547 (12.2)
Living together with partner
 Yes 9,028 (65.1) 6,955 (77.0) 1,038 (11.5) 1,035 (11.5) <0.001
 No 4,850 (34.9) 3,141 (64.8) 946 (19.5) 763 (15.7)
Physical activity (hours per week)
 ≥2.5 h 5,237 (38.2) 3,498 (66.8) 842 (16.1) 897 (17.1) <0.001
 <2.5 h 8,458 (61.8) 6,440 (76.1) 1,131 (13.4) 887 (10.5)
Risky alcohol consumption
 Yes 3,213 (23.3) 2,124 (66.1) 616 (19.2) 473 (14.7) <0.001
 No 10,606 (76.7) 7,923 (74.7) 1,369 (12.1) 1,314 (12.4)
  1. aSample sizes may not add up to 13,933 due to missing values; weighted results
  2. *p-value based on two-tailed Pearson’s χ2 test