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Table 4 The association between eating-related parental rules and unhealthy eating habits among adolescents adjusted for gender and perceived family wealth; odds ratios (OR), and 95 % confidence intervals (CI) between parentheses

From: Lack of parental rule-setting on eating is associated with a wide range of adolescent unhealthy eating behaviour both for boys and girls

  Skip breakfast weekend OR (95 % CI) Skip breakfast weekday OR (95 % CI) Low fruit consumption OR (95 % CI) Low vegetables consumption OR (95 % CI) High sweets consumption OR (95 % CI) High soft drinks consumption OR (95 % CI) High energy drinks consumption OR (95 % CI)
No eating-related parental rules 2.66 (2.12–3.34)* 5.33 (4.15–6.84)* 1.63 (1.30–2.04)* 1.32 (1.04–1.68)* 1.59 (1.30–1.94)* 1.93 (1.56–2.38)* 2.15 (1.72–2.70)*
Breakfast not mandatory 2.30 (1.85–2.86)* 13.21 (10.90–16.02)* 1.37 (1.15–1.63)* 1.34 (1.12–1.62)* 1.20 (1.02–1.41)* 1.42 (1.18–1.70)* 1.66 (1.36–2.02)*
Meal in front of TV allowed 1.64 (1.33–2.03)* 1.18 (1.01–1.38)* ns ns 1.30 (1.10–1.53)* 1.56 (1.29–1.87)* 1.74 (1.43–2.12)*
No rules about sweets and soft drinks 1.58 (1.28–1.95)* 1.27 (1.08–1.49)* 1.40 (1.18–1.66)* ns 1.54 (1.30–1.82)* 2.67 (2.20–3.23)* 2.21 (1.80–2.71)*
  1. *p < 0.05, ns = not statistically significant at level p < 0.05