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Table 3 The association of gender, family affluence, family completeness, urban context and parents’ educational level with eating-related parental rules and unhealthy eating habits among adolescents; odds ratios (OR), and 95 % confidence intervals (CI) between parentheses

From: Lack of parental rule-setting on eating is associated with a wide range of adolescent unhealthy eating behaviour both for boys and girls

  No eating-related parental rules OR (95 % CI) Skip breakfast weekend OR (95 % CI) Skip breakfast weekday OR (95 % CI) Low fruit consumption OR (95 % CI) Low vegetables consumption OR (95 % CI) High sweets consumption OR (95 % CI) High soft drinks consumption OR (95 % CI) High energy drinks consumption OR (95 % CI)
Gender - boy 0.62 (0.51–0.76)*** ns 0.72 (0.62–0.84)*** 1.60 (1,35–1.88)*** 1.71 (1.43–2.05)*** ns 1.24 (1.04–1.47)* 2.20 (1.82–2.65)***
Family affluence – low 1.69 (1.14–2.51)** 1.80 (1.21–2.67)** 1.66 (1.14–2.40)** ns ns ns ns ns
Incomplete family 1.43 (1.03–1.98)* ns 1.39 (1.05–1.84)* ns ns ns ns ns
Rural area 0.75 (0.61–0.92)** ns ns 1.30 (1.09–1.54)** ns 1.18 (1.01–1.39)* 1.34 (1.12–1.60)** 1.22 (1.01–1.46)*
Mother education – low 1.30 (1.04–1.61)* 1.64 (1.31–2.05)*** 1.25 (1.05–1.49)* 1.42 (1.17–1.73)*** ns 1.37 (1.14–1.64)** 1.67 (1.37–2.03)*** 1.80 (1.46–2.21)***
Father education – low 1.33 (1.07–1.64)** 1.50 (1.27–1.78)*** 1.50 (1.27–1.78)*** 1.37 (1.14–1.65)** ns 1.34 (1.12–1.60)** 1.82 (1.50–2.21)*** 1.81 (1.48–2.23)***
  1. *p < 0.05, **p < 0.01, ***p < 0.001, ns = not statistically significant at level p < 0.05