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Table 4 Associations between different factors and cycling injury severity indicators (separate model for each outcome and each possible explanatory factor), presented as unadjusted odds ratio (OR) and 95 % confidence interval (CI)

From: Describing and comparing the characteristics of injured bicyclists and other injured road users: a prospective cohort study

  Hospital admission (>12 h) Injury to head or neck (includes facial injuries) Multiple injuries (≥2) ≥4 injuries
Demographics     
Age group     
 17–24 years 1.56 (0.61, 3.99) 0.27 (0.09, 0.79) 0.57 (0.20, 1.56) 0.57 (0.12, 2.67)
 25–44 years 1.0 (ref) 1.0 (ref) 1.0 (ref) 1.0 (ref)
 45–59 years 1.96 (1.09, 3.51) 0.67 (0.38, 1.18) 0.85 (0.43, 1.68) 2.15 (1.06, 4.35)
 60+ years 2.26 (0.82, 6.17) 0.93 (0.34, 2.52) 2.13 (0.46, 9.92) 2.20 (0.69, 6.95)
Gender     
 Male 1.04 (0.56, 1.92) 0.71 (0.39, 1.29) 1.86 (0.95, 3.64) 0.93 (0.44, 1.93)
 Female 1.0 (ref) 1.0 (ref) 1.0 (ref) 1.0 (ref)
Educational level     
 University/tertiary 0.93 (0.54, 1.61) 1.53 (0.89, 2.64) 1.95 (1.05, 3.64) 2.29 (1.07, 4.88)
 Other 1.0 (ref) 1.0 (ref) 1.0 (ref) 1.0 (ref)
Work status     
 Paid work, including self-employment 0.99 (0.46, 2.17) 1.89 (0.85, 4.21) 1.25 (0.52, 2.99) 8.57 (1.13, 64.5)
 Other 1.0 (ref) 1.0 (ref) 1.0 (ref) 1.0 (ref)
Marital status     
 Divorced, widowed/separated 2.75 (0.62, 12.2) 1.81 (0.41, 7.99) 1.08 (0.20, 5.71) 1.71 (0.31, 9.24)
 Married/defacto 1.01 (0.58, 1.72) 0.80 (0.47, 1.35) 1.55 (0.83, 2.89) 1.44 (0.73, 2.84)
 Never married 1.0 (ref) 1.0 (ref) 1.0 (ref) 1.0 (ref)
Pre-injury health and QOL     
EQ5D VAS 1.02 (0.98, 1.05) 1.00 (0.97, 1.03) 0.99 (0.96, 1.03) 0.99 (0.96, 1.02)
EQ5D summary score 0.32 (0.02, 4.58) 2.08 (0.14, 30.1) 1.51 (0.07, 33.6) 0.93 (0.03, 24.9)
EQ5D – any issues reported on subscales 1.21 (0.66, 2.21) 0.76 (0.42, 1.40) 0.84 (0.42, 1.70) 1.11 (0.53, 2.32)
Self-reported health status     
 Excellent 1.0 (ref) 1.0 (ref) 1.0 (ref) 1.0 (ref)
 Very good 0.69 (0.39, 1.22) 1.12 (0.64, 1.94) 1.01 (0.51, 1.99) 1.24 (0.62, 2.51)
 Good 0.72 (0.31, 1.64) 0.67 (0.29, 1.52) 0.57 (0.23, 1.36) 1.36 (0.51, 3.58)
 Fair 0.43 (0.04, 4.32) 3.65 (0.36, 36.1) - 1.55 (0.15, 15.7)
 Poor - - - -
Current smoker     
 Yes 0.41 (0.14, 1.14) 0.92 (0.38, 2.18) 1.03 (0.36, 2.93) 0.84 (0.27, 2.60)
 No 1.0 (ref) 1.0 (ref) 1.0 (ref) 1.0 (ref)
Alcohol intake – Audit c score     
 Zero 1.0 (ref) 1.0 (ref) 1.0 (ref) 1.0 (ref)
 1–3 0.87 (0.30, 2.49) 0.96 (0.33, 2.76) 1.03 (0.30, 3.54) 0.71 (0.20, 2.51)
 4–7 0.63 (0.22, 1.73) 0.87 (0.31, 2.41) 1.13 (0.34, 3.74) 0.85 (0.25, 2.81)
 8–12 0.47 (0.11, 1.93) 1.27 (0.33, 4.87) 1.00 (0.20, 4.88) 0.70 (0.13, 3.72)
Medical conditions on self-report     
 Yes 1.03 (0.61, 1.74) 1.20 (0.71, 2.01) 0.84 (0.45, 1.56) 0.83 (0.42, 1.59)
 No 1.0 (ref) 1.0 (ref) 1.0 (ref) 1.0 (ref)
Obesity on self-report     
 Yes 1.20 (0.26, 5.47) 0.19 (0.02, 1.63) 0.20 (0.04, 0.93) 0.67 (0.07, 5.71)
 No 1.0 (ref) 1.0 (ref) 1.0 (ref) 1.0 (ref)
Overweight (BMI > =25)     
 Yes 0.79 (0.46, 1.36) 0.75 (0.43, 1.27) 0.91 (0.48, 1.73) 1.49 (0.77, 2.87)
 No 1.0 (ref) 1.0 (ref) 1.0 (ref) 1.0 (ref)
Crash-related characteristics     
Perceived danger of death     
 Great or overwhelming 2.07 (0.86, 4.98) 1.28 (0.53, 3.05) 2.34 (0.66, 8.25) 2.54 (0.95, 6.78)
 Moderate 1.37 (0.63, 2.99) 1.93 (0.88, 4.18) 2.37 (0.78, 7.14) 3.19 (1.37, 7.44)
 Small or none 1.0 (ref) 1.0 (ref) 1.0 (ref) 1.0 (ref)
Perceived danger of disability     
 Great or overwhelming 2.82 (1.05, 7.54) 2.00 (0.75, 5.31) 5.68 (0.73, 44.4) 4.05 (1.44, 11.4)
 Moderate 1.13 (0.49, 2.57) 1.76 (0.80, 3.89) 2.13 (0.69, 6.58) 1.34 (0.48, 3.70)
 Small or none 1.0 (ref) 1.0 (ref) 1.0 (ref) 1.0 (ref)
Accident circumstances a     
 Cyclist alone 1.0 (ref) 1.0 (ref) 1.0 (ref) 1.0 (ref)
 Collision involving a motor vehicle 0.81 (0.41, 1.59) 0.58 (0.30, 1.13) 1.56 (0.69, 3.49) 1.32 (0.59, 2.97)
 Collision with a cyclist, person or animal 1.02 (0.27, 3.84) 4.07 (0.82, 20.1) 3.11 (0.37, 25.7) 3.16 (0.81, 12.3)
 Games or stunts, cycling events, and mountain biking 0.88 (0.34, 2.27) 0.58 (0.22, 1.50) 0.92 (0.32, 2.59) 0.75 (0.20, 2.78)
  1. Bolded figures indicate significant estimates
  2. aAccident circumstances were assessed from participant comments prompted by open interviewer questions at wave 2. ‘Cyclist alone’ includes averted collisions, bike failure or malfunction, errors, falls, slips and slides, hitting potholes or obstructions or other inanimate objects, wet or greasy roads. ‘Collision involving a motor vehicle’ includes collisions with either a moving or stationary car, or a suddenly opened car door