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Table 3 ORS preparation by behaviour trial participants (N = 14)

From: Theory-based formative research on oral rehydration salts and zinc use in Lusaka, Zambia

ID Summary of observed ORS preparation Prepared using clean water? 1 l of water measured? Whole sachet added, into cool water? Solution covered? ORS prepared correctly according to all criteria?
1 Took a bowl, washed jug in the bowl, took water from stored (chlorinated) water using a banana cup (500 ml) and measured two cupfuls into the jug. Mixed in whole sachet of ORS with spoon. Poured ORS into a kettle and covered with bowl. Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
2 Took water from bucket (said to be chlorinated). Boiled some water, didn't wait enough for it to cool "The water is meant to be cooled after boiling but I did it this way because you said you wanted to see me making it". Shook some of the ORS sachet into large plastic cup, tasting and adding more several times. Then washed container (large plastic bottle with lid) she will store ORS in & will cover it. Jar leaks so put on dish. Yes No No Yes No
3 Used boiling water and added sachet directly, didn’t add everything but folded over sachet and kept remaining, didn’t measure water at all, put it in a plastic jug (not 1 L). Yes No No No No
4 Started to make by boiling water on stove (was taught by clinic a long time ago – 1 year), then power went off and she just made in a jug with normal water they have (not treated). Used 3 large plastic cups to measure 1 L (we checked, was correct) into large saucepan. Used whole sachet. Said will clean milk container very well with soap and will store it there. Said they usually boil water on a charcoal fire but hadn’t started fire yet as she was at the clinic which is why used stove. Will keep ORS until the next day. Will cover ORS. No Yes Yes Yes? (Not observed) No
5 First mentioned need to start brazier to boil water, then mentioned that stored water was chlorinated so agreed to make the ORS using this water. Washed a spoon, poured some of sachet contents into a large plastic cup of the chlorinated water. Yes No No Not while researcher was present No
6 Boiled water on a brazier inside house. Waited for water in saucepan to cool. Put entire contents of sachet into one banana cup (500 ml) of the boiled water. Yes No Yes Not while researcher was present No
7 Says uses "own initiative to boil water first". Boiled some water in a saucepan. Said she would wait for water to cool. As volume was already incorrect (and ORS would need remaking), researcher asked her to go ahead and prepare the ORS. She added the whole sachet of ORS to the water in the saucepan and stirred with spoon. Yes No Yes Not while researcher was present No
8 Uses water purifier sachets to clean water. Four sachets seen in baby bag. Water taken from bucket in kitchen using metal tea pot. Mother has 2 L and 2.5 L containers only. After making ORS mother observes volume is too much. Mixes whole sachet. Keeps ORS in covered metal pot. Yes No Yes Yes No
1 Makes fire on brazier with charcoal (takes about 5 mins to light, then a long time to heat before can add saucepan of water). Did not observe measurement so must have been before boiling - Mother reported using 1 L sour milk container to measure when questioned. Puts whole sachet of ORS into saucepan but doesn't stir. Covers with lid. Yes Yes (measured after boiling) Yes Yes Yes
2 Sent someone to go and buy charcoal and then lit fire, took a long time for water to boil. Poured from saucepan into a jug with a lid. Didn’t measure water at any point. Was about to pour in sachet to complete when we stopped her [so as not to waste the sachet]. Knows how to measure one litre: 3 ½ cups (we checked) Yes No Yes Not while researcher was present No
3 15 years old brother-in-law made fire with charcoal which used to boil water. Father went to buy charcoal from nearby market. Mother measures 5 glasses of water (about 1 l) into saucepan and then boils water in large pot. Pours water into plastic jug and covers with lid. Leaves to cool. Adds sachet (not observed) Yes Yes
(measured after boiling)
Yes Yes Yes
4 Boiled water. Cooled in saucepan placed in bucket of cold water. Poured water from saucepan into plastic kettle (2 L capacity). Believes measurement is 2 L. Adds whole sachet and stirs. Puts lid on kettle. Yes No Yes Yes No
5 Took a while to light brazier and heat coals. Measured 3 large plastic cups of water into a kettle and boiled water. Rinsed a bowl and poured boiling water into it. Left to cool. Added part of sachet only. Yes Yes
(measured after boiling)
No Not while researcher was present No
6 Is very quick. Mother has firewood already burning, water boils v quickly. Pours from saucepan into 1 l large cup and transferred to larger jug and left to cool (covered). Mixed in whole sachet and mixed by pouring between two containers. Will keep in jug with a lid. Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes