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Table 8 Tonga case study: demographic, nutrition and fish indicators

From: Fish, food security and health in Pacific Island countries and territories: a systematic literature review

Indicator Result Ref
Population All 103,252 [114]
  <5 years 14,000 [95]
Life expectancy at birth Male 65 years [115]
Female 69 years  
Births per year   2,896 [114]
Mortality/1000 Infant 7 [116]
Under 5 18 [116]
Household expenditure on food 50.6 % [117]
Nutrition   
Vitamin A deficiency in pre-school aged children 17 % [98]
Nutritional status among children <5 years: Stunting 8.1 % [116]
  Wasting 5.2 %  
  Underweight 1.8 %  
Nutritional status among adults overweight or obese: Women 79.6 % [110]
aged 15–49 years Men 69.9 %  
  Raised blood pressure: 41 % [99]
  Raised blood glucose: 18 % [100]
  Raised blood cholesterol: 50 % [101]
Energy (kcal) available per capita --  
Diet composition of population: Carbohydrate --  
  Fat --
  Total protein --
Infant feeding practices: Children < 5 years are ever breastfed 91 % [116]
  Infants exclusively breastfeed to 5 months 52.2 %
Households consuming adequate iodised salt: --  
Fish and fisheries National Urban Rural Coastal   [27, 117]
Annual per capita fish consumption (kg) 20.3 -- -- 84.6  
Subsistence fishing 37 % --- -- -  
Purchased 63 % -- -- -  
Consumption of fresh fish 80 % -- -- 87 %  
Fish as % of total protein consumption Total protein 13.5 % [118]
  Animal protein 23.4 %
Forecasts of fish required for food (tonnes) 2010 3,490 [27]
  2020 3,690
  2030 3,900
Households engaged in fishing activities   33 % [119]
Dependence on fisheries for income : Workforce employed in fishing industry 3 % [120]
Official fishing contribution to GDP 4.1 % [104]
Contribution of fish access fees to national revenue 0.2 % [104]