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Table 7 Kiribati case study: demographic, nutrition and fish indicators

From: Fish, food security and health in Pacific Island countries and territories: a systematic literature review

Indicator Result Ref
Population All 101,000 [95]
  <5 years 11 000 [95]
Life expectancy at birth Male 65 years [106]
Female 70 years  
Births per year   2000 [107]
Mortality/1000 Infant 25.6 [108]
Under 5
60  
Household expenditure on food 46 % [109]
Nutrition   
Vitamin A deficiency in pre-school aged children 22 % [98]
Nutritional status among children <5 years: Stunting --  
  Wasting --  
  Underweight 14.9 % [108]
Nutritional status among adults overweight or obese: Women 78.9 % [110]
aged 15–49 years   Men 67.4 %  
  Raised blood pressure: 37.4 % [99]
  Raised blood glucose: 21.4 % [100]
  Raised blood cholesterol: 35.5 % [101]
Energy (kcal) available per capita   3022 [111]
Diet composition of population: Carbohydrate 58.6 % [103]
  Fat 31 %
  Total protein 10.5 %
Infant feeding practices: Children < 5 years are ever breastfed 83 % [108]
Infants exclusively breastfeed to 5 months 69 %
Households consuming adequate iodised salt: 5 % [112]
Fish and fisheries National Urban Rural Coastal   [27]
Annual per capita fish consumption (kg) 62.2 67.3 58 115.3  
Subsistence fishing 63 % 46 % 79 % -  
Purchased 37 % 54 % 21 % -  
Consumption of fresh fish 92 % 91 % 93 % 95 %  
Fish as % of total protein consumption Total protein 28.8 % [29]
  Animal protein 55.9 %
Forecasts of fish required for food (tonnes) 2010 7730 [27]
  2020 9050
  2030 10 230
Rural households engaged in fishing activities 60 % [113]
Dependence on fisheries for income : Sales of fish and agricultural Urban 26 % [113]
  crops for cash income: Rural 34 %  
  Paid workers in the ‘agriculture   19.5 % [113]
  And fisheries’ sector    
Official fishing contribution to GDP 0.8 % [104]
Contribution of fish access fees to national revenue 42 % [104]