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Table 8 Results of included quantitative studies: child’s nutrient intakes (and other dietary outcomes)

From: A systematic review of the health and well-being impacts of school gardening: synthesis of quantitative and qualitative evidence

First author (year)
Sample (n)
Outcome measures Outcomes Intervention group Comparison group Control group Group x time results (adjusted, if reported)
Baseline
Mean (SD)
Follow-up
Mean (SD)
Baseline
Mean (SD)
Follow-up
Mean (SD)
Baseline
Mean (SD)
Follow-up
Mean (SD)
Christian (2014) (1) [9]
n = 1256
CADET (115 items) Energy (kcal/day)
Protein (g/day)
Carbohydrates (g/day)
Fibre (g/day)
Total fat (g/day)
Total sugars (g/day)
Iron (μg/day)
Sodium (mg/day)
Folate (μg/day)
Carotene (mg/day)
Vitamin C (mg/day)
2034 (39.4)a
75 (1.8)a
265 (4.4)a
13 (0.3)a
82 (2.3)a
132 (2.9)a
11 (0.2)a
2632 (76.3)a
227 (5.3)a
1956 (98.8)a
108 (3.7)a
1520 (178.2)a
58 (7.1)a
186 (21.5)a
10 (1.3)a
65 (8.2)a
90 (10.5)a
8 (1.0)a
2272 (286)a
169 (19.7)a
1995 (864)a
113 (31.7)a
1993 (34.1)a
73 (1.5)a
267 (4.3)a
13 (0.3)a
78 (1.7)a
134 (2.6)a
11 (0.2)a
2572 (57.6)a
224 (4.5)a
2352 (101.7)a
105 (3.5)a
1567 (168.4)a
64 (6.7)a
193 (20.6)a
11 (1.3)a
64 (7.7)a
99 (10.0)a
8 (0.9)a
2257 (267.7)a
180 (18.6)a
2164 (878)a
125 (31)a
NA NA MD = −46-; p = 0.6
MD = −6; p = 0.2
MD = −7; p = 0.5
MD = −1; p = 0.1
MD = 1; p = 0.8
MD = −8; p = 0.1
MD = −0.4; p = 0.5
MD = 16; p = 0.9
MD = −11; p = 0.3
MD = 168; p = 0.5
MD = 13; p = 0.02
Christian (2014) (2) [10] Trial 1; n = 1138
Christian (2014) (2) [10] Trial 2; n = 1391 CADET (115 items) Total energy (kcal/day)
Fat (g/day)
Sodium (mg/day)
Total sugars (g/day)
Carotene (μg/day)
Vitamin C (mg/day)
Iron (μg/day)
Fibre (g/day)
Carbohydrates (g/day)
Folate (μg/day)
Protein (g/day)
2039 (32.7)
82 (18.0)
2742 (58.4)
133 (2.3)
2024 (74.9)
118 (3.2)
11 (0.2)
13 (0.3)
267 (4.0)
235 (4.5)
75 (1.4)
1845 (172)
76 (7.9)
2621 (259)
108 (11.4)
1841 (299)
75 (30.2)
10 (0.9)
12 (1.2)
227 (21.7)
192 (18.9)
70 (6.5)
NA NA 1932 (32.8)
78 (2.0)
2575 (64.2)
127 (2.4)
2089 (83.9)
118 (3.2)
11 (0.2)
12 (0.2)
254 (3.6)
220 (4.3)
69 (1.4)
1836 (170)
77 (7.9)
2656 (257)
107 (11.3)
2168 (329)
73 (30)
10 (0.9)
11 (1.2)
225 (21.6)
188 (18.8)
68 (6.4)
MD = 9; p = 0.9
MD = −1; p = 0.8
MD = −34; p = 0.8
MD = 1; p = 0.8
MD = −327; p = 0.2
MD = 2; p = 0.7
MD = 0.1; p = 0.8
MD = 0.3; p = 0.6
MD = 2; p = 0.8
MD = 4; p = 0.6
MD = 2; p = 0.6
Cotter (2013) [22]
 n = 155
24 h urine samples; flame photometry Estimated salt intake
(g/day)
7.5 (2.4) 6.4 (2.2) 8.1 (3.0) 7.5 (3.0) 7.7 (2.0) 7.4 (3.0) NR
Davis (2011) [28]
n = 104
Block Food Screener (41 items) Energy (kcal/day)
Protein (g/day)
Fat (g/day)
Carbohydrates (g/day)
Added sugar (tsp/day)
Dietary fibre (g/day)
Meat (servings/day)
Dairy (servings/day)
Whole grains (oz/day)
2011.0 (1410.4)
85.4 (67.7)
79.8 (67.6)
244.2 (145.7)
11.8 (10.2)
16.1 (11.5)
2.1 (2.4)
2.1 (1.3)
0.8 (0.9)
1639.5 (1046.5)
65.1 (43.0)
62.6 (49.6)
211.3 (122.3)
9.9 (9.4)
16.1 (8.6)
2.8 (2.5)
1.7 (1.2)
0.9 (0.7)
NA NA 1961.0 (1077.5)
81.6 (49.0)
73.3 (52.4)
252.2 (119.6)
11.5 (7.6)
18.7 (10.3)
2.0 (1.7)
2.1 (1.1)
0.7 (0.7)
1535.2 (902.9)
58.3 (38.3)
57.8 (41.4)
202.8 (109.1)
11.2 (9.7)
13.3 (7.5)
2.5 (3.4)
1.7 (1.0)
0.6 (0.6)
p = 0.85
p = 0.59
p = 0.92
p = 0.94
p = 0.15
p = 0.01
p = 0.68
p = 0.97
p = 0.13
Gibbs (2013) [26]
n = 764
Parent questionnaire No sweet drinks (%) 74.1 75.6 76.2 68.1 NA NA OR = 1.33 (0.70 to 2.5); p = 0.38
McAleese (2007) [16]
n = 122
24 h recall x 3 (workbook) Vitamin A (μg/day RAE)
Vitamin C (mg/day)
Fibre (g/day)
430.4 (244.1)
58.2 (62.2)
12.7 (4.6)
612.4 (359.6)
143.4 (144.5)
16.9 (7.4)
428.5 (247.9)
47.5 (48.5)
10.7 (5.2)
358.8 (273.3)
60.8 (126.6)
9.9 (5.0)
621.4 (294.1)
83.1 (115.6)
15.3 (6.0)
549.5 (248.9)
76.2 (129.5)
12.6 (8.0)
F = 5.86; p = 0.004
F = 4.31; p = 0.016
F = 8.21; p = 0.001
  1. SD standard deviation (or standard error wherea), MD mean difference, OR odds ratio, F F statistic from ANOVA
  2. same study but different sample sizes reported
  3. No meta-analysis for due to baseline differences in vitamin C intake (McAleese, [16]/Christian, [10]) and lack of accounting for possible clustering effects (McAleese, [16])