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Table 7 Results of included quantitative studies: child’s fruit and vegetable intake

From: A systematic review of the health and well-being impacts of school gardening: synthesis of quantitative and qualitative evidence

First author (year)
Sample (n)
Outcome measures Outcomes Intervention group Comparison group Control group Group x time results (adjusted, if reported)
Baseline
Mean (SD)
Follow-up
Mean (SD)
Baseline
Mean (SD)
Follow-up
Mean (SD)
Baseline
Mean (SD)
Follow-up
Mean (SD)
 
Brouwer (2013) [21]
n = 12
Structured dietary assessment method for pre-school children (whilst in care) V served (servings/day)
V consumed (servings/day)
F served (servings/day)
F consumed (servings/day)
Serving size = one cup FV; half cup dried fruit; FV juices not included (source: USDA MyPlate)
1.42 (0.67)
0.80 (0.68)
1.55 (0.99)
1.00 (0.89)
1.24 (0.57)
1.05 (0.67)
0.92 (0.56)
0.67 (0.22)
NA NA 1.13 (0.31)
0.80 (0.38)
0.59 (0.27)
0.32 (0.29)
0.75 (0.21)
0.63 (0.28)
0.49 (0.40)
0.46 (0.43)
NR
Christian (2014) (1) [9] Trial 1; n = 1256 CADET (115 items) F intake (g/day)
V intake (g/day)
FV intake (g/day)
201 (9.3)a
87 (4.4)a
269 (10.7)a
168 (11.8)a
89 (9.0)a
237 (14.5)a
214 (9.5)a
102 (4.3)a
300 (10.5)a
208 (11.5)a
118 (8.6)a
308 (14.0)a
NA NA MD = −28 (16.4)a; p = 0.08
MD = −13 (12.8)a; p = 0.2
MD = −43 (22.8)a; p = 0.06
Christian (2014) (2) [10] Trial 1; n = 1138
Christian (2014) (2) [10] Trial 2; n = 1391 CADET (115 items) F intake (g/day)
V intake (g/day)
FV intake (g/day)
206 (7.9)
95 (3.8)
299 (8.9)
219 (17.6)a
111 (10.2)a
328.8 (23.0)a
NA NA 193 (8.2)
100 (4.7)
296 (9.6)
181 (17.1)a
122 (9.9)a
305 (22.4)a
MD = −22 (24.3)a; p = 0.3
MD = −7 (14.2)a; p = 0.6
MD = 15 (32.0)a; p = 0.6
Cotugna (2012) [27]
n = 359
Lunchtime observations Students who chose salad for lunch (%) 17.4 24.0 22.2 NR due to scheduling issues 22.1 20.3 NR
Davis (2011) [28]
n = 104
Block Food Screener (41 items) F intake (servings/day)
V intake (servings/day)
Serving size not reported
4.0 (0.7)
1.6 (1.0)
3.9 (0.8)
1.6 (1.0)
NA NA 4.1 (0.9)
1.9 (1.3)
4.2 (0.8)
1.3 (1.0)
p = 0.83
p = 0.11
Gibbs (2013) [26]
n = 764
Parent questionnaire F ≥ 2 servings/day (%)
V ≥ 5 servings/day (%)
Serving size = one apple or orange, two kiwis or apricots, one cup dried fruit
84.2
7.7
79.8
7.3
74.6
5.9
72.5
9.5
NA NA OR = 1.68 (0.90 to 3.14); p = 0.11
OR = 0.87 (0.54 to 1.42); p = 0.59
Jaenke (2012) [15]
n = 127
24 h recall x 2 F intake (servings/day)
V intake (servings/day)
Serving size = 150 g fruit; 45 g dried fruit; 75 g vegetables
1.2 (1.0)
2.0 (1.7)
Between group mean differences only 1.5 (1.0)
1.9 (1.3)
Between group mean differences only 1.0 (0.9)
2.1 (2.2)
Between group mean differences only p = 0.76
p = 0.06
Morgan (2010) [30]
n = 127 (some differences)a
McAleese (2007) [16]
n = 122
24 h recall x 3 (workbook) F intake (servings/day)
V intake (servings/day)
Serving size not reported
0.8 (0.8)
1.2 (0.6)
1.9 (1.4)
2.6 (1.7)
0.3 (0.5)
1.8 (1.1)
0.5 (0.7)
1.7 (1.0)
0.7 (0.6)
1.7 (0.7)
0.6 (0.7)
1.4 (0.7)
F = 10.98; p < 0.001
F = 15.00; p < 0.001
Meinen (2012) [31]
n = 404
Parent survey Child ate F yesterday (# times)
Child ate V yesterday (# times)
2.8 (0.85)
2.5 (0.79)
3.0 (0.88)
2.7 (0.93)
NA NA 2.8 (0.78)
2.6 (0.79)
2.9 (0.78)
2.6 (0.86)
NR
Parmer (2009) [37]
n = 115
Lunchroom observations V consumption (0 = not eaten; 1 = eaten) 0.70 (0.4) 1.0 (0.0) 0.64 (0.5) 0.64 (0.5) 0.83 (0.3) 0.50 (0.5) NR
Parmer (2007) [36]
n = 115
Ratcliffe (2011) [38]
n = 320
Garden Vegetables Frequency Questionnaire (22 items) V consumed more than once a month (# varieties) NR Change values only reported NA NA NR Change values only reported p = 0.001
Taste Test
V consumed at school p = 0.010
V consumed at home p = 0.122
  1. F fruits, V vegetables, FV fruits and vegetables, SD standard deviation (or standard error wherea); MD mean difference, OR odds ratio, F = F statistic from ANOVA
  2. asee results text for explanation of how differences in duplicate data reporting were handled
  3. same study but different sample sizes reported
  4. No meta-analysis due to heterogeneity of outcomes (e.g. inconsistent definitions and reporting of FV serving size) and study designs (e.g. different comparison groups; lack of follow-up means; different data collection methods)
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