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Table 11 Results of included quantitative studies: child’s physical health and activity

From: A systematic review of the health and well-being impacts of school gardening: synthesis of quantitative and qualitative evidence

First author (year)
Sample (n)
Outcome measures Outcomes Intervention group Comparison group Control group Group x time results (adjusted, if reported)
Baseline
Mean (SD)
Follow-up
Mean (SD)
Baseline
Mean (SD)
Follow-up
Mean (SD)
Baseline
Mean (SD)
Follow-up
Mean (SD)
Cotter (2013) [22]
n = 155
Standard clinical measures Waist circumference (cm)
BMI (kg/m2)
Systolic blood pressure (mmHg)
Diastolic blood pressure (mmHg)
Urinary sodium (mmol/24 h)
67.8 (8.2)
19.0 (2.7)
117.4 (9.9)
66.9 (8.0)
126.6 (40.5)
68.6 (7.6)
19.3 (2.8)
113.9 (9.6)
66.2 (8.5)
108.2 (37.3)
68.1 (9.0)
19.0 (3.2)
115.1 (14.8)
65.4 (8.2)
138.4 (50.7)
69.9 (8.9)
19.0 (3.1)
111.3 (11.6)
64.8 (7.4)
128.2 (50.9)
69.5 (8.6)
19.1 (3.2)
122.1 (14.1)
73.5 (9.6)
131.3 (34.9)
71.5 (8.1)
19.1 (3.1)
113.9 (9.9)
67.0 (7.4)
125.3 (50.6)
NR
Davis (2011) [28]
n = 104
Standard clinical measures BMI (kg/m2)
Waist circumference (cm)
Total fat (%)
Systolic blood pressure (mmHg)
Diastolic blood pressure (mmHg)
20.4 (4.2)
73.9 (13.3)
28.2 (12.6)
105.9 (8.20)
59.6 (8.4)
20.4 (4.0)
74.9 (13.6)
26.8 (12.4)
101.9 (10.4)
56.5 (5.6)
NA NA 21.8 (5.1)
75.7 (13.2)
29.0 (9.8)
108.9 (8.9)
60.8 (8.0)
22.0 (5.2)
77.3 (13.9)
27.6 (10.3)
104.5 (9.8)
58.7 (6.2)
p = 0.14
p = 0.67
p = 0.59
p = 0.53
p = 0.04
Wells (2014) [23] Physical activity GEMS Activity Questionnaire:        Mean difference:
n = 227 (or n = 124 for accelerometry data) Activity - yesterday
Activity - usually
Sedentary - yesterday
Sedentary - usually
2.91 (0.19)
3.78 (0.18)
0.63 (0.04)
0.78 (0.05)
2.48 (0.20)
3.43 (0.19)
0.51 (0.04)
0.68 (0.05)
NA NA 2.74 (0.17)
3.61 (0.16)
0.57 (0.04)
0.68 (0.04)
2.51 (0.19)
3.63 (0.18)
0.54 (0.04)
0.77 (0.05)
−0.20; p = 0.312
−0.37; p = 0.083
−0.09; p = 0.064
−0.19; p = 0.001
Accelerometry:        Mean difference:
Sedentary (%)
Light PA (%)
Moderate PA (%)
Vigorous PA (%)
MVPA (%)
55.23 (1.71)
34.62 (1.00)
5.17 (0.54)
5.01 (0.58)
10.14 (1.03)
55.00 (1.73)
33.17 (1.02)
5.62 (0.54)
6.24 (0.59)
11.82 (1.04)
54.75 (1.59)
35.09 (0.92)
5.41 (0.50)
4.99 (0.54)
10.35 (0.95)
56.11 (1.60)
33.07 (0.93)
5.28 (0.50)
5.78 (0.54)
11.03 (0.95)
−1.59; p = 0.144
+0.57; p = 0.492
+0.58; p = 0.010
+0.44; p = 0.213
+1.00; p = 0.044
  1. SDstandard deviation (or standard error wherea)
  2. No meta-analysis due to lack of adjustment for possible clustering effects