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Table 10 Results of included quantitative studies: child’s knowledge and attitudes towards food (including self-efficacy)

From: A systematic review of the health and well-being impacts of school gardening: synthesis of quantitative and qualitative evidence

First author (year)
Sample (n)
Outcome measures Outcomes (data are means and SD unless otherwise stated) Intervention group Comparison group Control group Group x time results (adjusted, if reported)
Baseline
Mean (SD)
Follow-up
Mean (SD)
Baseline
Mean (SD)
Follow-up
Mean (SD)
Baseline
Mean (SD)
Follow-up
Mean (SD)
Christian (2014) [10] (2) [9] Trial 1; n = 1138 Child questionnaire:
FV knowledge
Attitudes towards FV
% of children who agreed:
I enjoy eating fruit
I like trying new fruits
I try to eat lots of fruit
I enjoy eating vegetables
I like trying new vegetables
I try to eat lots of vegetables
Eating FV every day keeps me healthy
% agreed
94.5
78.0
83.0
65.6
58.9
64.6
93.5
% agreed
91.8
76.3
81.3
64.7
58.0
70.9
94.1
% agreed
96.4
83.3
86.7
66.9
61.0
66.7
94.1
% agreed
96.2
86.6
90.1
65.9
60.0
69.6
97.2
NA NA Odds ratio (95 % CI)
OR = 0.4 (0.1 to 1.0)
OR = 0.5 (0.2 to 0.9)
OR = 0.4 (0.2 to 0.9)
OR = 1.1 (0.6 to 1.9)
OR = 1.0 (0.7 to 1.5)
OR = 1.1 (0.7 to 1.7)
OR = 0.6 (0.2 to 1.6)
There is usually lots of FV to eat at home 89.2 89.8 87.6 94.1 OR = 0.4 (0.2 to 0.9)
I'm good at preparing FV
My family encourages me to eat FV
% who knew that 5 FV per day are needed to stay healthy
71.8
87.1
76.2
74.7
90.7
79.0
81.3
88.3
72.7
83.6
93.7
79.0
OR = 0.6 (0.3 to 1.1)
OR = 0.7 (0.3 to 1.5)
OR = 0.9 (0.4 to 1.6)
% who had tasted their own FV at follow-up 62.3 62.1 52.4 67.8 OR = 0.8 (0.5 to 1.4)
Christian (2014) [10] Trial 2; n = 1391 Child questionnaire:
FV knowledge
Attitudes towards FV
% of children who agreed:
I enjoy eating fruit (% who agreed)
I like trying new fruits
I try to eat lots of fruit
I enjoy eating vegetables
I like trying new vegetables
I try to eat lots of vegetables
Eating FV every day keeps me healthy
% agreed
96.7
86.0
87.2
68.8
62.8
72.8
94.9
% agreed
97.6
84.0
88.2
69.5
59.5
75.5
97.0
NA NA % agreed
96.8
84.5
82.7
64.2
60.5
66.7
96.2
% agreed
97.0
80.4
85.8
61.7
56.9
68.6
96.4
Odds ratio (95 % CI)
OR = 1.1 (0.4 to 2.9)
OR = 1.2 (0.7 to 1.9)
OR = 1.0 (0.6 to 1.6)
OR = 1.2 (0.9 to 1.6)
OR = 0.9 (0.7 to 1.2)
OR = 1.2 (0.8 to 1.8)
OR = 1.2 (0.5 to 2.8)
There is usually lots of FV to eat at home 89.6 92.8 88.9 89.5 OR = 1.5 (0.9 to 2.5)
I'm good at preparing FV
My family encourages me to eat FV
% who knew that 5 FV per day are needed to stay healthy
% who had tasted their own FV at follow-up
79.3
89.9
73.6
60.1
78.1
92.8
79.1
66.4
77.9
87.7
67.3
56.0
79.3
91.9
67.5
58.1
OR = 0.8 (0.6 to 1.1)
OR = 0.9 (0.5 to 1.6)
OR = 1.7 (1.1 to 2.5)
OR = 1.4 (0.8 to 2.4)
Meinen (2012) [31] n = 404 Knowledge of fruits and vegetables Knowledge of recommended daily servings of FV (%) 33 35    36 42 NR
Morgan (2010) [30] n = 127 Gimme 5 questionnaire (eight multiple choice questions) FV knowledge (/8) 5.4 (1.4) Between group mean differences only 5.1 (1.3) Between group mean differences only 6.1 (1.8) Between group mean differences only p = 0.02
Food preference assessment tool Ability to identify vegetables (/1) 0.9 (0.1)   0.9 (0.1)   0.9 (0.1)   p < 0.001
Morris (2001) [32] n = 97 Food identification questionnaire (food groups/recommendations) Nutrition knowledge score (/5) 1.9 (0.2)a 2.5 (0.2)a NA NA 2.4 (0.2)a 2.5 (0.2)a NR
Morris (2002) (1) [33] n = 213 Nutrition knowledge questionnaire (30 multiple choice questions) Nutrition knowledge score at post-test (/30): NR 20.8 (0.4)a NR 20.5 (0.4)a NR 17.1 (0.4)a F = 24.238, p < 0.0005
Nutrition knowledge score at 6 m follow up (/30):   20.8 (0.4)a 21.2 (0.4)a 18 (0.4)a F = 18.270, p < 0.0005
Morris (2002) (2)
[34] n = 215
Vegetable preference survey (six items) Ability to correctly name vegetables at post-test (/6) NR 3.3 (0.1)a NR 3.0 (0.1)a NR 2.6 (0.1)a F = 9.795, p < 0.0005
Ability to correctly name vegetables at follow up (/6)   3.2 (0.1)a 2.9 (0.1)a 2.8 (0.1)a NR
O’Brien (2006) [35] n = 38 Nutrition knowledge questionnaire (derived from Family Nutrition Program evaluations) Nutrition knowledge (/10) 7.53 (0.34)a 7.18 (0.30)a NR NR 7.05 (0.29)a 7.38 (0.33)a NR
Self-efficacy instrument (Domel et al. 1996) FV consumption self-efficacy (/10) 8.94 (0.29)a 9.06 (0.26)a 8.33 (0.33)a 8.67 (0.25)a
Outcome expectations questionnaire (Domel et al. 1995) FV consumption expectations (/6) 5.76 (0.18)a 5.24 (0.27)a 5.29 (0.24)a 5.52 (0.16)a
Parmer (2009) [37] n = 115 Fruit and vegetable survey (adapted Struempler & Raby) Food groups
Nutrient-food associations
Nutrient-job associations
FV identification
3.69 (1.8)
1.46 (1.1)
1.25 (1.0)
3.14 (0.7)
5.20 (1.2)
3.56 (1.6)
2.97 (1.9)
4.89 (0.9)
4.08 (1.7)
1.67 (1.5)
1.27 (1.3)
3.03 (0.6)
4.75 (1.9)
3.70 (1.8)
2.64 (1.6)
3.44 (0.8)
4.03 (1.8)
1.82 (1.4)
1.71 (1.2)
2.88 (0.9)
4.46 (1.3)
1.92 (1.3)
1.46 (1.0)
2.96 (1.0)
NS
F(2,122) = 11.84; p < 0.001
F(2,122) = 12.05; p < 0.001
F(2,78) = 28.08; p < 0.001
Parmer (2007) [36] n = 115
Ratcliffe (2011) [38] n = 320 Taste test Ability to identify vegetables NR Change values only reported NA NA NR Change values only reported p = 0.002
  1. FV = fruits and vegetables, SD standard deviation (or standard error wherea); OR odds ratio
  2. Note: the p values reported for these outcomes relate to subgroup analysis (n = 109) of students with lower baseline scores (Morgan et al. 2010)
  3. No meta-analysis due to heterogeneity of outcomes and different comparison groups (Christian, [10] Trials 1 and 2)
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