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Table 3 General characteristics in relation to resting heart ratea

From: Job strain and resting heart rate: a cross-sectional study in a Swedish random working sample

  HF ≤25th percentile 25th <HF ≤50th percentile 50th <HF <75th percentile HF ≥75th percentile p-value*
Total, n (%)b 409 (26.4) 384 (24.7) 366 (23.6) 393 (25.3)  
-Men, n (%)c 248 (60.6) 190 (49.5) 162 (44.3) 152 (38.7) <0.01
-Women, n (%)c 161 (39.4) 194 (50.5) 204 (55.7) 241 (61.3)
-Job strain ratio >1, n (%)c 138 (33.7) 160 (41.7) 151 (41.3) 172 (43.8) <0.01
-Job strain ratio ≤1, n (%)c 271 (66.3) 224 (58.3) 215 (58.7) 221 (56.2)
Mean age 44.4 46.7 46.3 46.6 <0.01
Age, range (median) 25–69 (44) 26–67 (48) 25–66 (47) 24–71 (48)  
Mean diastolic blood pressure (mmHg) 78.5 80.8 82.6 83.7 <0.01
Mean systolic blood pressure (mmHg) 123.4 126.1 127.5 129.5 <0.01
Mean BMI (kg/m2) 24.8 25.3 25.6 26.3 <0.01
BMI, n (%)c      <0.01**
-Underweight (BMI <18.5 kg/m2) 1 (0.2) 1 (0.3) 3 (0.8) 3 (0.8)  
-Normal weight (18.5 ≤BMI <25 kg/m2) 235 (57.5) 198 (51.6) 167 (45.6) 169 (43.0)  
-Overweight (25 ≤BMI <30 kg/m2) 152 (37.2) 147 (38.3) 153 (41.8) 150 (38.2)  
-Obese (BMI ≥30 kg/m2) 21 (5.1) 38 (9.9) 43 (11.8) 71 (18.1)  
Waist measure, mean (cm) 84.9 86.2 87.0 88.1 <0.01
Current smokers, (%)c 54 (20.8) 61 (23.5) 74 (28.5) 71 (27.3) 0.05
Leisure time physical activity, n (%)c      <0.01
-Sedentary leisure time 25 (6.1) 39 (10.2) 39 (10.7) 44 (11.2)  
-Moderate exercise during leisure time 175 (42.9) 225 (58.8) 222 (60.7) 267 (68.1)  
-Regular exercise and training 182 (44.6) 111 (28.9) 97 (26.5) 78 (19.9)  
-Hard exercise or competitive sports 26 (6.4) 8 (2.1) 8 (2.2) 3 (0.8)  
Education, n (%)c      <0.01
-Compulsory school 39 (9.5) 42 (10.9) 55 (15.1) 57 (14.5)  
-Lower secondary school 71 (17.4) 84 (21.9) 80 (22.0) 101 (25.7)  
-Upper secondary school 119 (29.1) 103 (26.8) 95 (26.1) 107 (27.4)  
-University education 180 (44.0) 155 (40.4) 134 (36.8) 127 (32.4)  
  1. a25th percentile = 54 bpm, 50th percentile = 60 bpm, 75th percentile = 67 bpm
  2. bRow percentage
  3. cColumn percentage
  4. *Presented for significant differences between HF ≤25th percentile and HF ≥75th percentile. T-test was used for continuous variables and chi2 for categorical variables
  5. **Fisher’s exact test was used since the number of underweight subjects in the different categories were less than 5, rendering the chi2-test potentially invalid