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Table 5 Factors associated with stigma and discrimination against drug users

From: Drug addiction stigma in relation to methadone maintenance treatment by different service delivery models in Vietnam

  Blame, judge Shame Discrimination Disclosure of addiction or health status
OR 95 CI   OR 95 CI   OR 95 CI   OR 95 CI  
Duration on MMT (months) 0.98a 0.97 0.99 1.00 0.98 1.02 0.99 0.96 1.01 0.96a 0.95 0.98
MMT model (MMT+ PAC - ref)
 Rural MMT-ART-VCT-DGH 1.67 0.99 2.82          
 Urban MMT-ART-VCT-DGH     0.36a 0.22 0.58 0.51a 0.31 0.84 3.21a 2.13 4.83
 MMT + Regional poly clinic     0.39a 0.24 0.63       
Education (High school or Lower - ref)
 College/University 1.82 0.93 3.57     1.96a 1.02 3.74    
Marital status
 Live with spouse vs. Single           1.56a 1.14 2.15
Religion
 Buddhism vs. Cult of ancestors 0.43 0.15 1.22          
Employment (Unemployed - ref)
 Self-employed 0.72 0.49 1.04          
 White collars 0.30 0.06 1.44          
 Workers, Farmers 0.42a 0.19 0.93 0.50a 0.25 0.99 0.52 0.24 1.13 0.49a 0.30 0.80
 Other jobs     1.65 0.93 2.95       
Self-reported health problems
 Mobility     1.82 1.00 3.31     0.39a 0.20 0.74
 Self-care        2.12 0.94 4.81    
 Usual Activities           2.22 0.90 5.47
 Pain or Discomfort           2.01a 1.16 3.47
 Anxiety or Depression 1.79a 1.19 2.70 2.39a 1.62 3.53 1.49 0.95 2.32 1.66a 1.02 2.69
Self-reported HIV status (Negative - ref)
 Positive     1.74a 1.01 3.04       
 N/A        2.15a 1.04 4.47    
# previous drug rehabilitation (None - ref)
 1–5 times 2.27 0.88 5.88     0.73 0.49 1.08 1.86a 1.21 2.86
 6–10 times 2.89a 1.07 7.80        1.73a 1.03 2.89
  > 10 times 2.75 0.85 8.83          
Ever inject drug vs. None        1.53 0.94 2.48    
Concurrent drug use vs. None        2.44a 1.11 5.37    
  1. asignificant at 5 % level