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Table 2 Modified Poisson regression - association between physical fighting and individual and area-level family affluence by sex

From: Physical fighting, fighting-related injuries and family affluence among Canadian youth

  Bivariate model Multivariate modela,b
  Male Female Male Female
  RR (95 % CI) p-value RR (95 % CI) p-value RR (95 % CI) p-value RR (95 % CI) p-value
Self-perceived affluence         
Low 1.14 (1.05–1.25) 0.003 1.66 (1.45–1.90) <0.001 0.99 (0.91–1.09) 0.886 1.39 (1.20–1.60) <0.001
Moderate 1.08 (1.02–1.15) 0.005 1.39 (1.27–1.53) <0.001 1.02 (0.95–1.09) 0.575 1.30 (1.17–1.43) <0.001
High 1.00 (Ref)   1.00 (Ref)   1.00 (Ref)   1.00 (Ref)  
Family affluence scale         
Low 1.09 (0.92–1.28) 0.317 1.50 (1.23–1.85) <0.001 1.01 (0.86–1.19) 0.888 1.42 (1.14–1.79) 0.002
Moderate 0.93 (0.89–0.98) 0.008 1.12 (1.02–1.23) 0.016 0.93 (0.88–0.98) 0.010 1.06 (0.97–1.17) 0.213
High 1.00 (Ref)   1.00 (Ref)   1.00 (Ref)   1.00 (Ref)  
Average household income         
Low 1.07 (0.96–1.18) 0.220 1.32 (1.15–1.53) <0.001 1.03 (0.93–1.14) 0.536 1.26 (1.08–1.46) 0.003
Moderate 1.08 (0.99–1.17) 0.086 1.17 (1.01–1.36) 0.031 1.07 (0.98–1.16) 0.130 1.15 (0.99–1.34) 0.075
High 1.00 (Ref)   1.00 (Ref)   1.00 (Ref)   1.00 (Ref)  
Sub-cohort analysisc Bivariate model Multivariate modelb,d
  RR (95 % CI) p-value RR (95 % CI) p-value RR (95 % CI) p-value RR (95 % CI) p-value
Self-perceived affluence         
Low 1.13 (0.98–1.30) 0.086 1.63 (1.31–2.01) <0.001 0.95 (0.80–1.12) 0.550 1.37 (1.09–1.72) 0.008
Moderate 1.12 (1.02–1.24) 0.023 1.29 (1.11–1.51) 0.001 1.03 (0.93–1.13) 0.582 1.17 (0.99–1.39) 0.073
High 1.00 (Ref)   1.00 (Ref)   1.00 (Ref)   1.00 (Ref)  
Family affluence scale         
Low 1.11 (0.82–1.49) 0.501 1.32 (0.87–2.02) 0.194 0.94 (0.71–1.26) 0.695 1.44 (0.99–2.07) 0.052
Moderate 0.89 (0.81–0.98) 0.016 1.20 (1.02–1.40) 0.027 0.87 (0.79–0.97) 0.011 1.07 (0.89–1.27) 0.478
High 1.00 (Ref)   1.00 (Ref)   1.00 (Ref)   1.00 (Ref)  
Average household income         
Low 0.98 (0.84–1.15) 0.809 1.04 (0.82–1.30) 0.768 1.01 (0.85–1.19) 0.944 1.01 (0.81–1.25) 0.965
Moderate 0.99 (0.86–1.14) 0.917 1.03 (0.83–1.27) 0.797 1.04 (0.89–1.22) 0.581 0.97 (0.77–1.21) 0.775
High 1.00 (Ref)   1.00 (Ref)   1.00 (Ref)   1.00 (Ref)  
  1. aMultivariate regression analysis adjusted for sex, age, academic performance, caring teachers, respectful students, alcohol use, happy home life, and club involvement. P(interaction) < 0.001 for self-perceived affluence, P = 0.016 for FAS, and P = 0.032 for area-level income. bAll multivariate models adjusted using backwards elimination with a criteria of p < 0.15. cA sub-cohort of 10,429 grade 9–10 students was analyzed to account for confounders only available in the grade 9 and 10 version of the HBSC survey. dMultivariate regression analysis for Grade 9 and 10 HBSC survey only and adjusted for sex, age, academic performance, caring teachers, respectful students, alcohol use, marijuana use, happy home life, and club involvement. P(interaction) = 0.020 for self-perceived affluence, P = 0.115 for FAS, and P = 0.723 for area-level income