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Table 1 Included studies of lone parents’ experience of compulsory welfare to work

From: Lone parents, health, wellbeing and welfare to work: a systematic review of qualitative studies

Study papers Country Year Data collection Recruitment Sample no. Focus of paper(s)
Baker 2002 [44], 2004; Baker & Tippin 2002 [31] New Zealand 2001 Face to face interviews All eligible claimants in study area invited 120 2002, 2004: impact of poor health on gaining and maintaining employment
2002: demands of meeting parenting, welfare and work requirements
Breitkreuz et al. 2010 [27] Canada 2001, 2002 Face to face interviews Via social service agencies, employability programmes and snowballing 17 Impact of unpaid domestic duties and employment for welfare to work lone parents
Critelli et al. 2010 [38] USA Prior to 2007 Telephone interviews Eligible claimants on foster agency lists 100 Impact of welfare to work policies on lone foster parents
Good Gingrich 2010 [39] Canada 2006 - 2010 Face to face interviews (peer) Purposive sampling 42 “lone mothers’ experiences of the design, delivery, and enforcement of workfare”
Grahame & Marston 2012 [40] Australia 2008, 2009 Interviews Purposive sampling from eligible participants of welfare to work records 21 Wellbeing of welfare to work lone parents: dependency and development of autonomy
Haux et al. 2012 [37] UK 2009, 2010 Face to face interviews (peer) Single Parent Action Network participants, Citizens Advice and Job Centre Plus invite, social network sites 50 Experience of welfare to work assistance and implications for wellbeing
Hildebrandt 2002 [34]; Hildebrandt & Kelber 2005 [28] USA 1999 - 2000 Face to face interviews (peer) Snowball sampling 34 2002: Effect of welfare to work on lone parents’ health and wellbeing
2005: Perceptions of lone parents of their health and wellbeing while on welfare to work
Hildebrandt 2006 [29] USA 2000 Face to face interview Purposive sampling from participants in work-based welfare programme, snowballing 31 Barriers to maintaining welfare to work participation
Hildebrandt & Ford 2009 [32] USA 2007 - 2009 Face to face interviews Community based purposive sampling 41 Barriers to success when lone parents are removed from welfare after the 5 year time limit
Lane et al. 2011 [33] UK 2011 Interviews Welfare to work records 60 Experience of welfare to work
McArthur et al. 2013 [41] Australia 2009 Telephone interviews, focus groups Social security social workers invite potential eligible participants 48 Lone parents’ encounters with welfare to work process, in particular the most in need feeling under greatest scrutiny
McPhee &Bronstein 2003 [36] USA 1999 Face to face interviews All participants of (un-named) welfare to work programme 39 “Effect of welfare reforms on lone parents’ perceived ability to care for themselves and their family”
Oliker 1995 [30] USA 1987 - 1992 Face to face interviews, observation Participants of job search, job training programmes 30 How welfare to work lone parents make decisions about work in relation to their domestic obligations
Peacey 2009 [42] UK 2009 Telephone interviews Callers to helpline/participants of employability programme/internet site 34 Experience of lone parents as they move from non-conditional welfare benefits to welfare to work
Pollack and Caragata 2010 [43] Canada 2005 - 2009 Face to face interviews Adverts in social services offices, snowballing, referrals from welfare workers 42 “how lone mothers construct their own subjectivity” in relation to workfare
Selekman and Ybarra 2011 [35] USA ? 2006 Face to face interviews Random selection of participants from larger study who had increased income 15 The facilitators for welfare to work lone parents who gain paid employment